Roles of the Domain Name System (DNS)
DNS is a hierarchical naming system for services or computers connected to the internet or any other private network. It is used for translating web site names into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses; distributing and distributing IP addresses of the black listed email hosts and serving as an internet phone book that translates PI addresses from the human friendly computer host names. However, unlike the normal phone book, this process takes a very short time to up date and distribute this information without interfering with the end user as they continue enjoying the same host name (Cricket, L. & Paul A., 2006).
Uses of DNS zones
DNS Zone is a portion of the domain name space that uses the specific DNS in use. It is used for mapping the numerically identified internet resources from the humanly practical domains. This mandates the registrant to maintain a technical and administrative infrastructure and enable him to manage his zone.
Roles of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and the use of DHCP scope
DHCP refers to a communication protocol which enables network administrators to centrally automate and manage the assignment of IP addresses within a network. They are used in the configuration of network devices for efficient communication in a network of IP. In order to acquire information from the default route, IP address or DNS servers, the DHCP client uses the DHCP protocol. This information is then used to configure its host. Its completion enables the host to communicate in the internet (Ralph, D. & Ted, L., 2003).
The data base of the configuration information and IP addresses is maintained by the DHCP server. On receiving the client’s request, the server determines the network where the client belongs, before allocating him the appropriate prefix or IP address. At the end of this process, the DHCP server sends appropriate information to the client.
Various options in configuring DHCP in Windows Server 2008
For the DHCP servers to function excellently, it is recommended that they must be properly installed. Some of the installation options include, but not limited to the following:
This configuration option is also called pad. Its code is zero (0) and has a data length of one. It is used in padding other options mainly to align them to the word boundary (Droms, R. et al., 2003).
ii. Subnet Mask
The subnet mask has a length of 4 octet. It is the configuration code number one. It is recommended to be used after the inclusion of the router option in the set up. It has a length of 8 bits. It helps in classifying the sub net mask of the client in line with RFC 950 .
Router, code number three, is the option number four. Its minimum length is four octets. However, this length must be in multiples of four. For it to function properly, it must be listed in order of preference.
iv. Domain Name Server
The option code six also falls under the multiple of 4. However, its minimum length is four octets. It also helps in specifying the list of domain systems when listed in order of preference (Droms, R. et al., 2003).
v.Merit Dump File
This is option number 13. It has a length of 2 octets. On the other hand, the length of its boot image is in 4KiB blocks.
vi. Domain Name
This is option code number 15. It has a minimum length of 1 and specifies the DNS domain name assigned to clients for the resolution of DNS.
vii. WINS Server
This is option code number 44 which has a minimum length of 4 octets in the multiples of four. It specifies RFC 1001/1002   NBNS in order of their preference (Ralph, D. & Ted, L., 2003).
The end is option number 255. As the name suggests, it is the last configuration option which marks the end of this vendor field. Unlike the others, it has a length of zero (0) octets.