According to Bohlander & Snell (2009), Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) is defined as the body of practices and laws that allow all individuals to work as well as advance, depending on their ability, potential, and merit and are equally allowed access to public services. The functions of the EEO are focused around compliance and prevention to reduce employer financial obligation. The three main functions of the EEO include investigation, consultation, and training.  To start with, investigation is the major function of the EEO which usually deals with interviewing employees and reexamination of personal files as well as other relevant documents. The employment information such as trends in promotion, termination, salary, and hiring are reviewed so as to determine if an employer is involved in systemic discrimination.

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EEO ensures that training programs are designed and presented concerning managers' legal compliance and employees' legal rights. Managerial training consists of a review of policies and laws that are associated with EEO, and in this case the managers' responsibilities are explained thoroughly so as to comply with the regulations of the EEO. Employee training involves informing the employees on the rights with respect to EEO policies and laws, and provides information concerning the resolving issues. The training is necessary because it acts as a tool for discrimination and prevention, so as to reduce the reliability of a company.  

Many companies depend on EEO for consultation, for instance a company that plans to reduce its staff will seek for information from the EEO specialist on whether reduction in staff will negative interfere with a given group of workers. Managers may seek advice form the EEO specialist when the behavior of an employee calls for a disciplinary action. The EEO allows for employees' personnel records and policies to be reviewed, and involves those employees who at one time engaged in unacceptable behavior. Therefore this ensures that the employees receive equitable and fair treatment.

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