Beck (2000) defines globalization as the integration of societies and economies across the world. Globalization is comprised of technological, economic, cultural, and political exchanges that are made possible due to advances in infrastructure, communication, and transportation. According to Beck (2000), today’s globalization differs from the previous days’ globalization on the basis of technology and policy environment. The current technology speeds up communication between various regions across the world (Moore & Lewis, 2009). There have been improvements in communication over the past years, but the current rate of change, the growth of communications media and the expansion of capacity for capital and information have not been realized before. The policy environment has undergone a great change and currently it is characterized by freeing up of world markets as well as reduction in the roles played by governments such as control and ownership of the production of commodities and services.
The chief factor that sustains globalization is the technology. In the present world the forms of technology that are sustaining globalization include the Internet, telephone communication, air transport, and water transport (Moore & Lewis, 2009). Due to the Internet connection, e-businesses have evolved and goods and services can be exchanged with money across the world. Telephone communication has been found important during the clarification about the online orders. Air transport is necessary in transporting both goods and personnel from the source countries to the destination countries. Water transport is usually used in the transportation of heavy goods like automobile spare parts from the countries of origin to destination countries. Globalization has both its own merits and demerits.
Moore & Lewis (2009) identify the merits of globalization as: spreading of jobs all over the world, and enhancing togetherness of nations. Globalization has greatly contributed to the reduction of unemployment in various countries over the world. Individuals can apply and get jobs oversees instead of remaining unemployed in their home countries. Due to globalization, economies of various countries get developed and therefore more citizens will be employed because the available funds due to exchange of commodities and services for foreign currencies (Beck, 2000). Globalization has encouraged nations to make various decisions regarding international issues, which leads to international relations (Moore & Lewis, 2009). Demerits of globalization include spread of diseases and deterioration of cultures. People, who are transported from one country to another, may be hosting some disease causing organisms and therefore they will infect people at the destination with the disease. Many cultural practices and values have disappeared due to active interaction of individuals from different nations of the world.
Globalization is encouraged by technologies which enable the exchange of information, and commodities and services. These technologies include the Internet, telephone communication, air and water transport. Globalization during the previous differs to today’s globalization due the presence of speedy means of communication. However, globalization has both its demerits and merits.