Job analysis refers to the identification and determination of the details of job duties and requirements in relation to their importance in that job. According to Singh (2008), job analysis is the heart of the entire human resource practice; therefore, it is very significant in every single organization. However, its significance and assumptions are questionable due to the rapid technology advancement, the increase in competition, changes in organizational structure, and the short life cycle of the majority of products. In addition, the approaches that had been used by the traditional job analysis are not applicable to emerging jobs. The traditional job analysis can even become one of the obstacles to the success of any organization. This has made the analysts to look for other proactive and strategic methods for job analysis in order to make the approaches more relevant. This essay has a detailed coverage of the most strategic approaches in job analysis and its importance at any workplace, e.g., as in the hotel industry. It also provides the job analysis focus in relation to the recruitment and selection. The concluding part of the essay outlines the categories of employees.
Job Analysis and Its Importance at the Workplace
Job analysis is one of the human resource management practices which cannot trigger the competitive advantages unless an adequate analysis has been done. It is a process in which the judgment of the collected data in a job is usually made. Beer (1995) describes the job analysis as the process used to define jobs with regard to some specific responsibilities and tasks and to identify the necessary capabilities, skills and qualifications. Job analysis assists any organization in turning the operational goals being developed into some particular human actions. Human actions are taken by staff members to make sure that the needs and the desires of customers are satisfied. Job analysis has no value if the needs and desires of customers are not met (Tanke, 2000).
Job analysis is carried out to get the job description and the person specification. The conventional job analysis makes some assumptions on a job that means a term that can possibly be defined as the discrete task. The conventional job analysis relies on the historical data, and this makes its procedures to look like they are backward instead of being forward with the strategic approaches. Job competency is the underlying characteristic for individuals that results into the effective performance of job, while the occupational competence is the ability for performing activities being within the occupation in accordance with the expected standards.
The development of structure of an organization leads to job opportunities requiring to be staffed. Therefore, job analysis is the method in which analysts determine the details of job and the kind of people to be hired. Determining the kind of people to be hired depends on the following steps: the use of the job analysis information, the type of employees, the selection of positions to be analyzed, the collection of job analysis data, and the review of the information with other participants, as well as the development of both the job description and the job specification (Guo, 2007).
The most significant concept in job analysis is the analysis of the done job but not the person conducting it. Job analysis can be collected through interviewing the officials, and the results of the analysis give some specifications or descriptions of job. Its major purpose is to establish or document the employment procedures being used in the industry. The major employment procedures include the selection, training, the performance appraisal, and the compensation. The common problems being examined in the most typical job analysis include: the major purpose and duties of the job, the decisions that an employee can perform without any supervision, the positions in which the employee supervises, the type of resources and procedures being used by the staff to complete the work given, the nature of the employee’s interaction and the people they are interacting with, the physical efforts that the employee applies in their job, and the source and the type of stress in job (Smile, 2011). A repetitive method is used to finish job analysis in the union with the input of employees and supervisors in the company playing the pivotal roles.
There are various methods or basic techniques of conducting job analysis which can either be used individually or while combined. Some of them include the observation, the use of check lists, conducting interviews, questionnaires, the US civil service procedures, and the use of participants’ logs ("The Times 100", 1995). These techniques are important in the development of the job description and specification. A distinctive method used in the majority of job analysis techniques involves giving questionnaires to the officials that they use to identify the duties, the equipment, work relationships, responsibilities, and the job environment (HR-Guide.com, 1998). These questionnaires help the job analyst to conduct interviews to incumbents who later come up with a draft enabling the analysts to review the job which would be more accurate. The analyst finally prepares a clear description of job with the specific requirements.
The job analysis data collection through the interview method is commonly used in most organizations. The basic forms of interviews include non-directive, situational, sequential, appraisal, panel stress, and structured interviews (Singh, 2008). Every interview may be classified according to the structure, content, method, and the purpose of administration. There is a number of factors that challenge the usefulness of interviews. They include making of premature decisions, allowing the unfavorable information to predominate, the lack of knowledge about job requirements, the pressure while hiring employees, the lack of experience for allowing the applicant order effective, and sending visual signals that telegraph enthusiasm (Guo, 2007).
There are five major steps involved in the interview process which include: planning, establishing a relationship, questioning a candidate, the closure of the interview, and then the review of data. The guidelines that direct an interviewer include the use of structured guides, the knowledge about job requirements, the focus on characters that the applicant can evaluate more accurately, such as motivation, allowing the job applicants to talk much, and delaying the decisions of the interviewer until the interview has been over.
The steps in both situational and structured approaches of interview that are mostly used in big firms such as Nevada Hotel include: job analysis, the evaluation of information in job duties, developing job questions that contain critical incidents, the development of standard answers, appointing the interview committee, and then the implementation ("Small-Business", 2007). The majority of job interviewees fear that they may make some premature decisions and allow the unfavorable information to predominate, therefore, their enthusiasm and the first appearance is very important. The applicant should allow the interviewer to talk and get prepared before getting to the interviewer for having any knowledge about the job and the likely problems that the interviewer requires to be solved. The job applicant should stress on his or her enthusiasm and the motivation to work, and the applicants should try to match the needs of the interviewer.
A quick procedure while conducting an interview helps in the development of behavioral specifications in many organizations. It helps in the determination of basic intellectual features, personality, some experience factors, and the motivation. It also helps in the use of the interview plan that would match the applicant to the job. This procedure is mostly useful in small firms; however, it can be used in big organizations such as the Nevada Hotel Company that has the human resource management groups. The employee commitment in the hotel industry can be built out of value-based hiring. Value-based hiring has various assumptions of management such as the clarification of values that are treasured; also, much ample time is spent during the process of selection, and the realistic previews are provided..
The method used in job analysis depends on various concerns; for instance, the type of work, the number of officials, the location of job, and the amount of the work done. Job analysis in the hotel industry is used to accomplish a wide range of functions that include the recruitment and the selection. The recruitment can be described as the process where the organizational requirements for employment are identified followed by posting of the application form in the company. For example, some employees can be recruited to advertise the positions in the hotel and to describe the responsibilities and the nature of work. The selection involves the procedures that are used to choose a suitable candidate from the applicants. This means the identification of e marginal requirements, job specifications in which the decisions have to be made in order to select the most appropriate candidates. Both the recruitment and the selection move together with the training and performance evaluation. Training involves the process that assures that the job holders possess the knowledge, right skills, and the right attitude that would enable the company to achieving its goals. The performance evaluation is the identification of performance measures that assess the job performance.
There are other various aspects analyzed in every job. Firstly, the performance of duties and tasks is the elementary unit in each job. The information collected in the basic unit is standard and complex, including the frequency, skills, efforts, and the duration of tasks in the job. Secondly, this is the environment in which the job is located in. It can have significant effects on the requirements of the performance of job. Some unpleasant conditions as extreme temperatures and offensive odors can negatively affect the work done. Others include definite risks that could be facing such officials as hostility, dangerous explosives, antagonistic co-officials, and radioactive substances. Relationship is the third important aspect which should be always analyzed. This involves the supervision given and the response received between incumbents internally or externally. The tools and the equipment are an aspect depending on the type of job. Some jobs require the special tools and equipment that should be provided including such protective tools as protective clothing. The fifth aspect is the requirements or the qualifications that enable a particular person to do a specific job. They are the abilities, skills, and the knowledge needed to execute the particular job. An official may have high qualifications than required, though job analysis states only the minimum requirements to adequately perform the work.
Recruitment in the company can be internal or external. The internal recruitment in the hotel industry is advantageous because it can make significant savings. Individuals that are already in the industry have the knowledge how to operate the hotel and consequently would require a little training and the short time paid. The internal recruitment does not make any disruptions to other staff members due to the presence of new employees. The internal promotion is an incentive to the staffs as it motivates them to work extra harder. Both strengths and weaknesses in the internal recruitment would have already been assessed unlike those of outsiders that are not known and risky to hotel services. However, the internal recruitment has some shortcomings that include the replacement of the person who has been promoted; other staff members may be upset because of the promotion of one person and the most important one that maybe the insiders do not meet the essential qualifications that would make the company more effective.
The external recruitment brings a wide range of talents that provide an opportunity to access other new experiences and ideas to the hotel industry. Its demerits revolve in the cost incurred, and it is more expensive. The Hotel Company can end up getting a staff member who is less productive practically while the papers and the interview prove that the person is really qualified.
Both the selection and the testing of potential employees are important. The selection involves the measures used in the identification of the appropriate candidate at hotel posts. Three major reasons of selection include the cost, the performance, and the legal implications and neglectful employment. An effective method of selection concerns the following: it minimizes the cost of selection, develops a method of identifying skills in candidates, makes sure that appropriate skills required have been identified, and makes sure that the selected candidates would do and stay within the hotel company work. Employees with the appropriate levels of performance in many organizations are selected to do the job. The applicants or employees who are abrasive or do not have the required skills will not perform the job effectively.
Screening the employees effectively is necessary as it is very costly to carry out the recruitment before hiring them. For instance, an executive earning of 60,000 dollars per year is estimated that the recruitment cost is 47,000 dollars ("Small-Business", 2007).This includes the cost of the interview time, the search fees, the referencing, and travel expenses. The cost of employing non-executive staff members that is not proportionally high is significant.
The reduction of the selection cost and keeping to that involve such various factors as holding interviews in the accessible location. That is, both the assessors and interviewees can easily access the location. This includes making sure that all the documents required such as the application forms are available to applicants. A short list of suitable candidates is made to avoid a repeat interview to the already interviewed persons. The required skills must have been identified in the job analysis process, its description, and specification. The methods of testing candidates are important because they assess whether the preferred candidates have met the qualifications or not. Testing also can involve interviewing the applicants, providing some sample works in the hotel or giving them the real work. It also involves filling papers about their personalities and doing the intelligence tests.
The legal implications in most countries are not considered. Nevertheless, the societies with most petitioner employment candidates who think that they are unfairly treated during the selection seek for some damages from appalling organizations. The equal hire legislation, court ruling and guidelines require some selection procedures not to unfairly discriminate minorities, women, elderly, and the handicapped people.
The selection relies heavily on the psychometric testing ("Small-Business", 2007). The psychometric testing is a model that involves an assumption of job division into distinct tasks, and that every task is graded according to the knowledge, competencies, and attitudes needed in the job. It also assumes that these factors predict the job performance in the organization. This model values individualism in that a personal values are taken, evaluated, and predict the personal performance. It also takes into account other factors such as utility, managerial activities, intolerance of minorities, and bias. The major issue in the recruitment and selection of employees is the concern about the identification process of relevant qualities required in job applicants, both the existing and potential employees. These requirements help the organization to make an appropriate decision between the person hired and the job.
There are the specific concepts that are associated with job analysis. They include: the job description, the job design, the job specification, and the job posting (Smile, 2011). The job description in any industry sets out the ways in which employees fit in the company. The job description involves a scripted summary of responsibilities and duties in the job. The major components in job description include the identification information such as the department, the title, and the reporting relationships. For example, it sets out the title or the name of the hotel, for instance, the Nevada Hotel. The job description shows the job summary that is briefly states the key purposes of positions with their importance to the hotel company. Duties and responsibilities are also included in the job description. It is the hotel that is responsible for its employees and sets a simple description that shows the roles and duties of employees. Sometimes a job description directs the job applicants as a job indicator. It lists all the functions of job and all the areas of accountability, and gives a clear definition of standards of the performance.
Alternatively, the job description can be used to guide employees and the hotel manager in their roles and responsibilities in the hotel. It also indicates the date by which it had been last updated and the working conditions, that is, the hours and conditions at work. The job description can also be used as a form of communication. It passes the information about the responsibilities and the expectations of the job performance by hotel employees. These descriptions form the foundation or the basis that is used in job postings.
Although the job description has numerous useful functions in the hotel industry, it is time consuming while being created and this is also difficult to keep on updating it. The common approach that ensures that it is updated regularly is to have every staff reviewing their descriptions in advance. After the review, they can make suggestions to the senior staff members who will make the appropriate changes. This process ensures that the job description remains current, and the team members in the hotel are reminded about their specific responsibilities and the performance standards required that form the basis of the performance evaluation.
The job specification is not an ordinary description as it highlights both mental and physical features that are required in a job holder. It is sometimes included in the job description. It is used in the identification of personal competencies or capabilities, pre-work experience and the formal requirement considered essential in the responsibilities found in the job description. The knowledge, the attitude, and skills are regarded as personal competencies. Pre-work experiences simply mean to have the similar or almost the same kind of jobs done elsewhere by an employee before the application to this position. For example, before one becomes a manager of the dining room at the Nevada Hotel, one would have ever operated as a waiter elsewhere. The formal qualifications concern the certification requirement. It is important to determine or specify the requirements with considerations of the method used by employees to get the work experience. They could be formally trained or could have developed the experience depending on the nature of job. For example, through working in the hotel one can develop the experience of managing a hotel room.
Job analysts should focus on the variance found in skills, knowledge, and the attitude that depend on the type of work in the hotel. For example, the job specification for any entry position at the Nevada Hotel possibly will require less formal education but heavily focused on the type of interpersonal and communication skills, the positive attitudes such as job ethics, and the orientation of customer services. In this instance, the job specification in the post of a trainee manager in the hotel includes the following; the managers at all intensities are expected to be responsible; the Nevada Hotel Company is looking for tough and talented people; they should have leadership and management skills that lead the hotel team.
Job analysis, the specification, and the job description provide the valuable information to the hotel industry and also serve as instruments in the recruitment. The staff evaluation is a method of monitoring the performance of staff members, and it is an aspect of promotion in the hotel industry. For example, in the Nevada Hotel Company, both employees and their line managers debate about their personal objectives and targets for a certain period. The appraisal then involves a performance review in the previous period and then sets new targets. Job details can be used as a center of establishing dialogues and targets. The job description shows the reference in the hotel industry and can be used to solve disputes because it would show the specific person that did a particular mistake at that particular time.
Job posting is the process by which both the potential and the present employees are informed about the available job positions in the organization. The information in job posting is based on the information contained in both the job description and the job specification. It involves the description that briefly describes about the responsibilities and the major duties of job. This includes the minimum personal capabilities required, pre-work experiences, and the formal qualifications. In most cases, job postings appear in newsletters, websites, and on the organization’s bulletin boards. It sometimes supports THE internal and external strategies of recruitment.
Well outlined job postings serve as the devices of effective prescreening that help potential employees to accurately assess their suitability for a job. The most important type is the internal job posting. It has not only been found useful for the Nevada Hotel but also in most hospitality chains as it retains employees interested in relocation.
Job design is a concept in job analysis that is concerned with the nature or the type of work. It includes the exact tasks that should be performed, the reporting relationships and the working environment. The job design nature can be considered primarily as traditional or non-traditional (Beer, 1995).The basis of the traditional job design is the principle of scientific management that advocates for the operational efficiency. This advocacy emphasizes that efficiency in the company is influenced by a breakdown of jobs into simple components and asking the staff members to carry out their narrow duties and tasks time and time again.
The traditional job design necessitatesthat employees should exercise the slight judgment and requires fewer abilities and training. On the contrary, the non-traditional job design embraces the job enrichment whereby autonomous team members are assigned with broad and meaningful work that would ensure that they use their variety of skills they possess. The job enrichment is associated with elevated levels of the external type of motivation to employees, the high satisfaction, low absenteeism, the performance of great quality, and the turnover. Job analysis is useful while helping to identify job positions that can benefit from the increased job enrichment.
The human resource management plays an important role in the hotel industry that covers the overall strategies through providing facilities in the hotel competitive advantages. The important steps in job analysis include: the selection of jobs to be analyzed, the determination of the type of information to be collected, determining the ways of collecting the information, determining the kind of people to collect the information, processing the information, and outlining the job description and specifications (Guo, 2007).
The major information that is usually collected for job analysis includes the actual activities in job that should be clearly stated. The information on the tools, equipment and other utilities that are necessary in the company is being collected. Another important aspect of information that is collected is the job context. The information about the employees’ character traits, the required behavior and their performance standards is also collected.
The major methods used by most small and big firms for collecting the information of job analysis include the use of questionnaires and interviews. However, other methods such as the observation, the performance of job, and the performance evaluation can be used. Other methods that are not widely used include the use of diaries, checklists, and critical incidents analysis.
Job analysis is a personnel activity that in many ways affects the commitment. Most people, for instance, in the Nevada Hotel, may not perform the work without the skills and the capabilities. Therefore, through job analysis, it is possible to analyze the job details and the kind of abilities required for job applicants to have.
According to Beer(1995), it is unlawful to practice the discrimination during the recruitment and the selection of employees due to color, sex, race, religion, or national origin. The initial selection screening starts with application forms in most organizations. These forms are used by management to get the background information or data. These data can be used to predict the performance of a job applicant. For instance, application forms have the predicated job success, employee thefts, and the job tenure (Smile, 2011).
A personnel recruiting affects the commitment of employees due to the fact that the commitment relies on employing individuals being potential in the development. The more qualified applicants in the organization, the higher the selection standards will be in the organization. The selection in most organization begins with an effective interview and testing.
The job description should reveal the work at all positions in the manner that shows clear duties without referencing to other descriptions. Just one check of the job description should make a new employee understand the kind of job at this position. The job description is used in various ways in job analysis. It is used to recruit, select, orient new and pre-existing promoted employees, evaluate the employees, and train the employees. It is included in the same job description that describes the promotions and the transfers usually given to potential employees.
The traditional tool that is used in the identification of relevant job qualities during the recruitment and the selection is job analysis. This leads to diving job analysis into two methodologies: the person oriented and the task oriented. The task oriented methodology generates all the activities needed in a job holder as it is outlined by the job research. The task oriented usefulness is limited by such recent developments like teamwork, flexibility, and multi-skilling. This consequently leads to the person oriented techniques that include some critical incident techniques and the performance grid. It also leads to behavioral event interviews that importantly grow as a way of identifying the requirement directly for a certain job.
The major elements in the job description include the identification of job data, the summary, the location or the environment of job, and its specification. It also includes the minimum professional qualifications expected to be involved for the potential employees. The job specification normally answers specific questions, as what human qualities and experiences are being vital to do the work well. It states the kinds of people to be recruited and the type of skills to be tested. The job specification is based on educated assumptions of managers in the organizations; however, more accurate statistical approaches can be used to develop job specifications.
De-jobbing is the ultimate product of the increased level of changes happening in organizations today that include the hotel industry. As organizations speed up their decision making through taking steps such as the advancement in technology, personal jobs become broader and less specialized ("Small-Business", 2007). Increasingly, the organizations’ management requires their employees not to be limited to specific responsibilities listed in job descriptions. In this instance, most employers de-emphasize detailed job descriptions and substitute the brief job summary in the company with the combined summary of skills required for the positions.
Job design is a job analysis concept that uses various techniques. Some of these techniques include the simplification of job, its enlargement, and the job enrichment. Other minor techniques used in job design are the job rotation and the team building for a job. In the development, a staffing guide or a plan of the following steps should be followed: job analysts should set the expected standards of productivity and determine the total number of estimated sales and the customers’ volume in the hotel industry; the staff guide should clearly analyze the total number of hours spent during hotel services; and it should also examine the labor expenses in the hotel.
There are two major categories of employees which include permanent employees and alternative employees. These employees are classified according to the size of the organization they are working in. Permanent employees can be further divided into three groups: firstly, 30-40 hours spent per week employees who work in shifts especially in big firms. Secondly, the regular payroll employees that work daily and get their payment the same day. Thirdly, to receive benefits to employees that would get the extra payment and this may be due to their reputable work in the company.
Alternative employees include temporary employees, part-time, and outsourced employees. These employees are usually hired for the organization due to emergencies in the company. Outsourced employees can be hired to market such services of the company as those that would market the Nevada Hotel Company services online. It is after doing their job that they get their payment from the organization. Part-time employees can be hired to work due to absenteeism of permanent employees.