The Colombian exchange refers to the exchange of ideologies, populations, diseases and food crops between the new world (America) and the old world (Europe). Some of the positive effects were;- the old world gained new staple crops such as potatoes, maize  and cassava, less calorie-intensive foods  such as tomatoes ,chili peppers, tobacco, sugarcane , coffee and meat from turkey . The spread of Christianity to the new world and the discovery of quinine to cure malaria and prevent further deaths. The negative effects included; the spread of deadly viruses and bacteria such as smallpox and measles, (Denevan, 1976), and syphilis  which caused social interruption through out the old world(Sherman,2007).The demand for labor led to the rise of slave trade(Lovejoy,2000;Manning,1990).

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John Locke speaks of a state of nature where men are free, equal, and independent. He champions the social contract and govern­ment by consent that is elected by the people . He argues that the govern­ment must respect the rights of individuals.  Locke's formula for limited govern­ment inspired the American Founding Fathers to fight against social injustices and for independence. The Founding Fathers, in the Declaration of Independence, speak of both natural rights and natural laws. He asserts that men in the state of nature are free and equal, and at liberty to do as they wish-but only "within the bounds of the law of nature."

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