Nicholas II was born in May 1868 at Krasnoye Selo and was the first born son of Tsar of Russia, Alexander the III . He ascended to the throne after his father died from a liver disease on 20 October 1894. Nicholas was a cultural nationalist and he did not favor the democratic reforms as he was against the westernization of Russia. Through the encouragement of Vyacheslav Plehve, Nicholas II Minister for Interior, he made plans to get hold of Constantinople and later on expand to Korea and Manchuria. However, on 8 February1904, there was a surprise attack at Port Arthur from the Japanese navy on the Russian fleet, whereby the Russian Navy was badly charged. The war failed its objective to get support for the autocracy and Nicholas II. This led to demonstrations even in border areas like Poland, Finland, and the Caucasus. Tsar and his government’s prestige were reduced since he failed to defeat the Japanese. Vyacheslav Plehve was killed by a bomb on 28 July 1904. This led to mounting of domestic problems in Nicholas II government.
There was little concern on the industrial workers safety and health, as there were extremely harsh conditions in the industrial units. In 1904, prices on basic goods increased drastically leading to a decrease in wages by 20 percent. Gapon, who was the founder of Russian Assembly of workers, called for an industrial action, whereby an estimate of 110,000 workers went out on a strike in St. Petersburg. Nicholas II had to come up with a petition on the workers’ demands and sufferings. This was inclusive of an increment in wages, working for eight hours instead of the initial 11 hours, termination of Russo-Japanese war, and an improvement in employees’ working conditions.
Nicholas II reign made Russia one of the greatest and most powerful nations in the world to collapse both militarily and economically. His critics called him ‘Bloody Nicholas’ because of the political opponents’ execution. As the Tsar of Russia, he approved the Russian mobilization in August 1914, which led to Russia’s participation in World War 1, in which 3.3 million Russians were killed. Nicholas II was abdicated in 1917 on 15th March and he was imprisoned with his family.
Stalin was Soviet Union’s premier from 6 May 1941- 5 March 1953. He was the Communist’s party secretary general from 1922 until his demise in 1953 . He consolidated more powers in his hands and he eventually managed to put all the opposition parties within his party. In 1928, he came up with a five year plan and a centralized command economy bringing about economic collectivization and rapid industrialization in the entire countryside, hence USSR becoming a large industrial power from an agrarian society. This was the fact that after the World War II, USSR had the world’s second greatest economy. The introduction of the five year plan in 1928 concentrated mostly on steel, iron and machine tools development, transport, and electric power. Workers’ targets were also very high. It was during his reign that so many millions of people were being exiled and deported to the remote areas of the USSR, and he also sent many people to penal labor camps. It was also during Stalin’s period that there was the 1932-1933 Soviet famine, which was caused by the disruption of food production, due to the changing agricultural sector in the initial upheaval of early 1930s. Stalin is also said to be one of the most murderous and powerful dictators in history. He also played a good role in Nazism defeat.
Abraham Lincoln was the America’s 16th President and he served from March 1861 until he met his death through an assassination in April 15, 1865 . He was brought up in a poor family and he was self-educated, thus becoming a country lawyer and there afterwards he ended up becoming the Illinois state legislator. It was during his reign that he managed to successfully take his country through a great constitutional and a moral crisis. It was during the America’s civil war that he also managed to end slavery, preserve the union, and also to promote both financial and economic modernization.
Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation of 1863, which ended up slavery through the United States Constitution 13th Amendment. His cabinet was mostly comprised of leaders from different factions and he made them work together. Politically, Lincoln fought back his opponents, who were mostly the irreconcilable secessionists, through his oratory powers of appealing to the American people. He also fought with the patronage by pitting those who opposed him against one another. At the end of the war, he used the policy of reconciliation as a way of moderate reconstruction.
Lincoln was, however, assassinated by an actor as he watched Our American Cousin play in Washington at Ford’s theatre. Abraham Lincoln’s death was the first of its kind for a sitting president in America’s history.
Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th and the youngest President in America’s history at the age of 42 . He took over the presidency after the assassination of his predecessor President Mc Kinley. He brought power as well as new excitement to presidency, as he led the American citizens towards strong foreign policy and progressive reforms. He was born in 1858 in New York City in a wealthy family. He emerged as a trust buster when he forced the dissolution of a large rail road combination, which was in the North West. Roosevelt also, being aware of the need of a shortcut between the Pacific and Atlantic, guaranteed the Panama Canal construction. Due to all these Theodore Roosevelt also won the Nobel Peace Prize for acting as a mediator in the Russo-Japanese war, thus making history by becoming the first American having a Nobel Prize.
He was quick in addressing matters of conservation in his country and this pushed him to greater heights of reserving public lands, national forest, and he even pioneered irrigation projects in America. Immediately after becoming the president he tried to take his Republican party towards progressivism, while including business regulation increment and trust busting.
Roosevelt left presidency in 1909 and upon that he went for an African Safari. Upon his return in politics, he was shot in chest by one of his fanatics while campaigning in Milwaukee. He met his death in 1919 having lived a happier life. He was also known for his best quotes that he made during his speeches, such as “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go Far.” His quotes and proverbs made United States to be steered more strongly into the world politics. He also had the ideal of ensuring equal justice to all and giving out favors to none.