Since Sudan gained its independence in 1956, a lot of challenges have been evident most notably political instability, ethnic rivalry, civil war among others. These occurrences have resulted to secondary challenges of diseases, poverty and genocide just to mention but a few. The country has undergone half a century of turbulent civil war. This was marked by humanitarian suffering and frequent dictatorship as they strive to grow as one of the biggest nation in Africa. Although the country was among the forerunner countries in Africa to acquire independence, these challenges have been the cause of its lagging behind relative to the other countries in the same region.

The country has experienced totalitarian power in four decades with only ten years of a successful democratic rule. This however, has been made extremely vulnerable as a result of the economic hardships, the partisan squabbling as well as labor unrest (Mom, 2009).

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The conflict arises as a result of the need of controlling oil fields which led to the formation of rebel groups. This is also coupled with land and water competitions as a result of scarcity of these resources that are needed to support the livestock of the nomadic population. This has been a cause of conflict ferocity escalation between southern and northern Sudan that resulted to seeking refuge in Ethiopia and Kenya (Deng, & Ajak, 2005).

The efforts of the government have been an involvement of peace talks and signing of treaties which to some extent have reduced the skirmishes. Some agreements on the sharing of the reserves of oil between the rebels and the government have also been adopted although the willingness of the government to fulfill such promises has been in doubt. The government has made all efforts of encouraging foreign investment but, the pace of development has been very slow as a result of the non transparent laws governing the investments, high levels of corruption and bureaucracy. The status of political instability and inadequate infrastructure has also hindered the anticipated progress in the country.

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