1.Alcoholism can be defined as diseased condition brought about by excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholism can also be termed as a family disease. Alcoholic may affect young teenagers or young adults; who have a husband or wives; those who have brothers or sisters and also those with relatives or parents. Alcoholism totally causes havoc in family life and create long, lasting detrimental, effects in the family members lifetime. Alcoholism, according to Silverstein (1990) is responsible for many family constraints than any other single cause. Out of four families at least one of them experience alcoholism problem.

Alcoholism affects every member of the family differently. Mothers who take alcohol during pregnancy affect fetus development before birth. Fetal alcohol syndrome causes severe birth defects. The babies born by alcoholics have the mild form of fetal alcohol syndrome. Children born in chemical dependency families are likely to be neglected, sexually or physically abused and develop their alcohol chemical dependency. Chemical dependency cause violence and crime and is associated with battering, incest and murder. It negatively affects the spouse relationship. The spouses feel self-pity, hatred and avoid social contacts. One of the Parents take the role of both parents leading to unprecedented widowhood and is a principal cause of divorce.

2.For people addicted to alcoholism, there are two main treatments available for them to choose. They are outpatient and inpatient methods of treatment.  These types of treatment regimens involve couple, group therapies and family therapies to assist counter alcoholism problem. The processes provide guidance and directions to patients. They further provide alcoholics’ family with education about what really alcoholism is, and the means to meet appropriate goal of treatments and patients recovery. The greatest difference between outpatient and inpatient is where patients sleep every night. Inpatient involves a round the clock supervision and patient stay in residential treatment facility isolated from the rest of the world. The goal of isolation is to keep away patients from temptations and distraction and allow total focus on recovery. Outpatient treatment involve behavioral therapy and educational classes and meetings with psychiatrist are only once or twice in a week.

Through the program, as a social worker encourages the patient to accept the use the variety of treatments and therapies available in the facility. As a social worker, it is right to help reconnect patients with their dreams and goals while helping them develop a positive relationship with themselves particularly, their lives.

3. Historical perspective of the development of the mental health

Moral humanitarian approach (before 1900)

  Many of persons, who suffered from mental illnesses before confederation, were cared at home or some and some by religious bodies. Some patients were jailed. The psychiatrists were exceedingly few, and some saw it unnecessary to attempt treating mental illness. They considered the nonfunctioning society member could not be cured. In the 19th century, the government borrowed experience from Europe. The government established small institutions that provided patients with humanitarian and moral benefits. The success of moral treatment would lead to the establishment of several asylums across the country. The government thus started the process of institutionalization for mentally ill individuals.

Institutionalization (1900-1960)

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The establishment of isolated lunatic asylums proliferated all over United State. Many persons mentally ill were admitted, and some ended being locked up for lives in the asylum. Some of the patients were taken there involuntary through invocation of the law. The treatment involved working or industrial therapy where patient would be given some small remuneration. Many psychiatric treatments commonly used during this period were; insulin, coma, and hydrotherapy and crude psychosurgery (lobotomy). These methods, however, have been abandoned since falling into disfavor and are unethical or invalid scientifically. After many years, patients in psychiatric exceeded those in no psychiatric hospitals. There was the problem of under staffing as the facilities almost operated at a hundred percent capacity. The government had to intervene.


It was not meant merely to discharge patient but rather de-hospitalization through other alternative outside the asylums.

Psychiatric Units in General Hospitals (1960s)

The advent of new pharmacological treatment was in line with antipsychotic medication. Patients could spend years in hospitals were treated and discharged under effective medication that help them reintegrate back in society. The necessary steps must be taken to remove the patients from pathological milieu before reintegrating them in the society. The hope was that social reinsertion would be a success.

4. There are assessments criterion used to determine addicts problems before admission to the appropriate level of care that is inpatient or outpatient. The acute intoxication and the withdrawal potentiality need to be known. If the patient is willing to quit alcohol, the doctor recommend for the appropriate move. Biomedical stabilization is another element of assessment. The psychiatrist assesses the physical illness of the patient or complicates treatment that need to be addressed. Patient’s chronic pain and narcotic analgesics are conducted. The behavioral stabilization of the patient is checked to determine psychological, psychological, behavioral or emotional problems that may lead to complication of the treatment processes. The readiness to change by the patient is checked whether it is willfully done, or there are other forces coercing the patient to get treatment. The strength of patients in accepting that he or she has a problem is considerably scrutinized. The patients relapse potential is the danger of continued drugging behavior and the psychiatrist establish how the patients cope with the addiction. The patient awareness about his or her condition is determined. The recovery environment of the patient is a crucial element. The patient family, school or workplace need to be conducive so as not to threaten engagement to successful treatment. 

Enhancing Effectiveness and Integrating Mental Health Services and Supports (1990s to Present

This method involves total community interventions that include outreach services, home visits by the mobile mental health teams. The clinicians partner with self-help groups in the community. The

5. It is at the adolescent stage that needs much concentration.  The understanding and appreciating the opportunity and vulnerabilities in the adolescent brain development is crucial in leading to happy and healthy lives. The young should be encouraged and motivated to a plan for future ambitions. Parents owe young adults transition to full adulthood. It is therefore, important to create environment for the teenagers to promote healthy choices.

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