Traditionally, ports were known to be just land or sea interfaces. In the modern day changes, ports have come to be a fundamental points where goods are transferred from one mode of transport to another, hence providing logistical network, Drewry (2005), Nevertheless, this has attributed to the numerous challenges resulting from uncertain changes of the environment and trends in the shipping industry. These emerging challenges and issues include:

  • The rise of in the number of transshipment cargo which can also be attributed to the to  increase in the amount of competition that is brought up by the ports also by other terminal operators
  • the globalization of  outsourcing services also manufacturing.
  • emerging hub and spoke system in global shipping service
  • high cost and constraints for developing port facilities
  • increase of productivity and efficiency in ports
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In order to cater for these emerging issues and challenges, ports across the world have tried to articulate improvement in their physical infrastructure. This is being achieved through port expansion at container terminals and related facilities. In addition, developing of hub ports as well as international logistic centers is another way in which ports are trying to adapt to cub the above mentioned challenges. Consequently, it is noted that, many ports have been conducting some changes such as restructuring the port and deregulating private as well as public partnership. Ports have also implemented the use of advanced technological knowhow, such as automated containers, which makes it easier to record arrival and dispatch of a given container. This helps in time saving as well as cost reduction in terms of staffing. Efficient and effective container handlers’ machines are also being put into operation, resulting to improvement of operations’ in the port.  

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