I do agree that management is both an art and science, because of the nature of its functioning. To achieve effectiveness in management, organizations employ scientific skills and techniques, as well as, arts skills and techniques.  Management involves processes such as computer based research, analysis and findings that have to be verified scientifically.  On the other side, these processes that are done are perfumed by individuals, human beings who are social. Therefore, some work relationships are created; work structures have to be put in place for the organization to run smoothly and in harmony. The employees have to be instructed, motivated, and given the atmosphere for service, all these is based on the art part of management.

Actually the human resource arm of management, which is a wide field in management, is centered on the art part of management. Therefore, management processes and general functioning of an organization, can only realize effectiveness when there is application of both scientific inputs and artistic inputs, in the areas of relevance. Management is therefore, tasked with the big responsibility to ensure that there is balance in the application of scientific and art skills. However, the nature of management processes in an organization may make management, to either employ more of art than science or more of science than art, in the management processes.

Art and Science of Management

Managers view the management processes as both an art and a science. Management may be an art based, on the art of manager to make the people or employees more effective than they would have been, without the presence of their manager. In other words, managers have to be artistic in tuning the employees' attitudes, interests, energies and application of skills, competencies to achieve the said objectives and goals of the organization. All the processes that managers employ towards workers of an organization, for example, in terms of motivation, appraisals, work and work relations improvements, speaks about the 'art' part of management. These cannot be done away with, for employees are human beings, who must be led well to achieve the set objectives and goals of the organization.

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Management is also a science. The science entails how the processes are done in the management of an organization. It is actually 'how' manager does the management processes of the organization. A manager has four basic pillars that define 'how' he/she practices management; these are plan, organize, direct, and monitor. These scientific pillars are solid examples that must be set right, even at the onset of management of an organization. Good management starts with good planning; then after the plan a manager has to make it happen by organizing the processes; after organizing, manger must tell people what they ought to do, and when they do it he/she should monitor the process to ensure all is well and effectiveness is evident (Anderson, 2006).   

Health care management is a science, first because of the processes such as research on the effectiveness of certain medication to a patient, the treatment methodologies and the new technologies such as x-rays, scanning which are scientific inventions. It is too an art as it involves individuals effort and work relationships, to attend to a patient or a situation. Fort example, in healthcare management, employees may need to be motivated or appraised and this is an 'art'. All 'art' and 'science' processes work in harmony, so as to yield effectiveness in reaching out for the objectives of the health care institution.


Managing people can be a hectic affair; Individual involvement is always seen to be a difficult thing. However, it can be done successfully when the manager knows when to employ either a scientific or an artistic approach in the carrying out of the management processes. Furthermore it can be a very rewarding experience, for it always improves with study and experience.

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