According to Hudson (2006), all animals have a skeleton that enables them to stand upright as well as to protect their internal organs. He notes that the anatomy of skeletal system is essential in determining the structural and functional components of the body skeletal framework. Hudson (2006), on the other hand, points out that the skeletal system of most animals varies in their location. He notes that in some animals, such as the insects and squids, these structures are found outside their bodies and are normally termed as exoskeleton while in another group of animals it exists to the internal as a hard supporting structure known as the endoskeleton. He points out that skeletal system of human beings is made up of bones which not only offer them structural support but also support their internal body systems.

According to Hudson (2006), the anatomy of the skeletal system is primarily the study of its structure and functionality, especially that for human beings. He points out that anatomy is simply the structure of the body while physiology, on the other hand, entails the study of functions of the structure of the body. Therefore, the study of the skeletal system is essential for any student attending classes of anatomy or physiology. It not only assists them in the understanding of the structural components of human skeletal but can also enable the learners to initiate appropriate first aid treatment for the injury of the skeletal system. In addition, it also gives the students of these classes much understanding of the structure of the human skeletal system, how it functions and the related diseases, including their remedies.

Structure of the Human Skeletal System

As pointed out by Hudson (2006), bones form structural components of the human skeletal system and are essential for human body functionality. On the other hand, Landers (2008) noted that the human skeletal system comprises of 206 bones, which are either axial or appendicle in nature. He points out that the axial human skeleton includes the skull, backbone, and ribcages while the appendicular skeleton includes the limbs and the girdles. He notes that the axial skeleton components comprise of 80 bones with 26 bones forming the backbone skeletal structure that helps in supporting the upper body parts. According to Landers (2008), appendicular human skeleton forms the locomotive structural component that enhances stability for human beings when adjusting to unusual landscapes.

Additionally, Landers (2008) noted that bones are formed by the depositing of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in the body in a process known as the ossification. He points out that these minerals forms 70% of the bone composition with 30% being contributed by organic matters, such as protein, fats, and carbohydrates. Even though calcium deposits help in the formation of the bones by strengthening the bones to make them tough and sturdy, the bones, on the other hand, store calcium and regulate its supply in the body, which is essential for other body functions (Landers, 2008). He notes that the growth of bones is categorized by stages since when human beings are born, their skeleton structure comprises of 300 bones, which then fuse together and form 206 bones for the adult human beings. These bones are essential for their body stability and functionality.

How Skeletal System Works

Genden (2010) points out that the human skeletal system plays a vital role for the well-being of human beings. He notes that the human skeletal system helps in designing the human shape based on the structural development of the bones. According to him, while human beings develop different shapes when growing, the skeletal system dictates various factors associated with their body development, which include size of their body (whether tall or short), their muscular development, and the shape of the body. He points out that the skeletal system helps in supporting of the body by enforcing body structure thereby holding and securing the internal organs in their right positions. For instance, Lander (2008) points out that the skull normally holds the brain in the right position so as to enhance its functionality.

On the other hand, Genden (2010) points out that skeletal system helps in locomotive processes as it acts as the lever during movements. He notes that the skeletal bones are normally attached to each other by ligaments, which further connect to the tendons thereby attaching the muscles to the bones. He points out that the muscular contraction enables the bones to be pulled along thereby bringing two bones together. By this musculoskeletal system and depending on the shape of the skeletal system, human beings are able to move.

 Moreover, Genden (2010) notes that the skeletal system helps in protecting vital organs by covering these organs with their hard bones. An example of the organs closely protected by the skeletal system is the central nervous system whose structures like the spinal cord are covered by the cranium bone. Furthermore, Genden (2010) notes that the skeletal system also helps in the storage of salts and minerals as well as in the production and storage of blood cells. He points out that red blood cells are essential for body operation as it helps in the transportation of oxygen throughout the body while the white blood cells help in the immune system. He also notes that the bone marrow that is found in bones helps in the production of blood cells. The red bone marrow specifically helps in the production of red blood cells while the yellow bone marrow helps in the storage of fat, which is transformed into red marrow during red blood cells deficiencies to aid in its production.

Skeletal System Diseases and How to Take Care of Skeletal System

According to Uddin (2011), there are various skeletal system diseases that normally affect people when proper skeletal care is not taken. These diseases include arthritis, bone cancer, leukemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and spinal bifida among others. He points out that these diseases are mostly associated with the underdevelopment of skeletal system. For instance, he indicates that arthritis is normally associated with the underdevelopment of bone joints, which normally results in joint pain thereby affecting an individual’s movement.  Moreover, he points out that the underdevelopment of bones results in cancerous skeletal system diseases, such as the bone cancer and the leukemia. He notes that leukemia cancer normally develops from the bone marrow leading to the formation of abnormal and ineffective white blood cells thereby affecting the body’s immune system and thus making the body more vulnerable to diseases.

On the other hand, Uddin (2011) points out that the weakening of skeletal system leads to such diseases as the rickets and osteoporosis. He notes that these diseases are associated with the weakness of the bones resulting in the loss of bone tissue. According to him, bone tissues helps in bone remodeling processes that, in turn, aid in the development of stronger bones essential in the functioning of skeletal system. He points out that the loss of bone tissues in the body results in the underdevelopment of the bone thereby weakening and fracturing an individual’s wrist or spine. This can negatively affect the individual’s upright positioning.

According to Uddin (2011), there are various precautions and steps that can be engaged in avoiding these complications of the skeletal system while promoting the skeletal system functionality. He points out that people should take food with calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, and protein contents as it will help in the building bone masses. He also points out that people should engage in weight-bearing exercises, such as running, rock climbing, and dancing among others, which would keep the bones strong. Moreover, he notes that people should avoid bone injuries by wearing protective gears like, for example, helmets during their physical activities. He also points out that people should regularly visit doctors for check-up in ensuring that their skeletal system is properly developed and functioning.

However, Uddin (2011) notes that in cases where a person has bone injuries or fractures, it is important to locate and check the area during the first aid treatment. He points out that in case of bleeding, it should be controlled by putting direct and steady pressure using a cloth around the area while immobilizing the patient in order to avoid further movements.  He notes that immobilization involves the limiting of movements that could have otherwise led to damages before one secures doctor’s intervention.


The write up, in highlighting anatomy of the skeletal system, has pointed out the important role that the skeletal system plays in ensuring effective body functionality and well-being. It has been noted that bone is an essential material for the human structural system and should be developed and maintained so as to enhance the functionality of the skeletal system. The paper has pointed out that the underdevelopment of skeletal system results in diseases which adversely affect the well-being of people and may even lead to death. Moreover, the paper has underlined the need not only to avoid practices that can results in bones fracturing but also the need to adopt first aid treatment which can help in addressing skeletal injuries.

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