Respiratory system can be defined simply as a system of organs that are involved in the acquisition of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide by an organism. Respiratory system thus gives organisms a surface area for gaseous exchange between the air and the blood (Oduor, 2008) . Respiratory system anatomy can be analyzed in two parts: upper respiratory anatomy and lower respiratory anatomy. The upper respiratory anatomy consists of organs such as the nostrils (external nares) , nasal cavity , nasal vestibule , nasal septum, palate (hard and soft) , nasopharynx , pharynx , larynx and trachea. The nostrils contain hairs which protect the organism from dust , sand and insects. The hard palate on the other hand separates the oral and nasal cavities (Oduor, 2008) .
The lower respiratory anatomy comprises of the bronchi which is a branch of the trachea. There are basically two main bronchi which branch to form several branches called the bronchial tree which forms the secondary bronchi before it enters the lung. The secondary bronchi divides into tertiary bronchi in each lung (Oduor, 2008). The tertiary bronchi in turn subdivide severally in each lung forming smaller bronchioles which control the ratio of resistance to airflow and facilitate distribution of air in the lungs. The bronchioles in turn open into alveolar ducts which have sacs at their ends called alveolar sacs. The sacs are in turn connected to several individual alveoli which serve to increase the surface area for gaseous exchange in the lungs (Oduor, 2008). The lungs are very important components of the respiratory system . Organisms normally have two lungs which filter and deliver oxygen to the blood system. The diaphragm controls the pressure and volume of air moving in and out of the lungs (Oduor, 2008).
When an organism breaths in, oxygen enters the respiratory system through the nose or the mouth. This oxygen then passes through the larynx and the trachea which enters the chest cavity. This oxygen enters the bronchi and then the bronchial tubes which lead it directly into the lungs (Oduor, 2008). From the bronchial tubes , oxygen then enters the alveolar ducts and then the alveolar sacs which are surrounded by blood capillaries. This oxygen then diffuses through the capillaries into the arterial blood. When an organism exhales , carbon dioxide follows the same route out of the lungs (Oduor, 2008).
Diagnostic procedures include arterial blood gases (abg) which involves drawing of blood from an artery in order to measure the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in it. Bronchography involves an x-ray of the lung using radiopaque dye and its done to visualize the bronchial tubes. Broncoscopy on the other hand involves a visual examination of the bronchi using a device called bronchoscope (Oduor, 2008). Chest x-ray is also a diagnostic procedure done by picturing the lungs from the back. Other diagnostic procedures include a complete spirometry which measures the breathing ability of the lungs, computerized tomography ( ct scan) which involves examination of sputum to check bacterial growth , laryngoscopy which is a visual exam done to the larynx by use of a laryngoscope , lung biopsy which involves extraction of a lung sample for analysis , Imaging procedures : magnetic resonance imaging , pulmonary function studies which involve evaluation of volumes and capacities, and flow rates (Oduor, 2008). Pulse oximetry which permits the non - invasive measurement of arterial oxygen saturation. Sputum cytology is another diagnostic procedure which involves testing of sputum for cancerous cells. A tomogram is also a diagnostic procedure which involves a roentgenography of a few layers of the chest to examine lung fields (Oduor, 2008).
Surgical procedures include adenoidectomy which refers to the excision of the adenoids. Other surgical procedures are : brochoplasty which involves a surgical repair of the bronchus, laryngectomy which involves excision of the larynx, laryngocentesis which is a surgical puncture done to aspirate fluid from the larynx , laryngotrachetomy which refers to the incision of the larynx and trachea and adenoidectomy which involves an excision of the adenoids (Oduor, 2008) .
Bronchography :- word root- bronch / I , o - meaning bronchus
Broncho- larger air passages of the lungs
Graphy - the act of recording the activity of an organ
Bronchography - refers to the act of recording the activity of the lungs' air passages (bronchus) (Scott, 2006)
Cytology - word root- cyt/o - meaning cell
Cyto refers to a cell
Logy - study of
Cytology refers to the study of the cell
Laryngectomy - word root- laryng/o -meaning larynx
Ectomy - the surgical removal of an organ or part
Laryngectomy - the surgical removal of the larynx (Scott, 2006)
adenoidectomy - word root - adenoid/o - meaning adenoids
adenoid - refers to the pharyngeal tonsils situated on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. (Scott, 2006)
ectomy - the surgical removal of an organ or part
adenoidectomy - refers to the surgical removal of adenoids
laryngocentesis - word root - laryng/o - meaning larynx
Laryngo - larynx
Centesis - the act of perforating with a needle
Laryngocentesis - refers to the act of perforating the larynx with a needle (Scott, 2006)