Introduction to Philosophy


Socrates is a Greek moralist and philosopher born at Athens in the year 469 B.C. In the early part of his lifestyle Socrates was a sculptor just like his father Sophroniskus. He had the standard basic, training of the Athenian citizen, which includes knowledge of mother tongue, reading Greek poets, astronomy, geometry, and arithmetic. At some point in his life, he was a strong armed foot soldier at the siege of Potidaea. Socrates did not seclude himself for examination like most philosophers his career was to speak and communicate. He spent his whole day in a public manner, talking with anyone who sought to speak and listen to him. Socrates had a passion for excellent church duty. According to Cicero, Socrates was bringing views from the heavens down to earth. Socrates goes on trial for introducing new divinities of his own, next to corrupting the youth. The name of his defense is Apology of Socrates and Plato preserves it.

The Apology is Plato’s knowledge and remembering of Socrates’ trial in 399BC. In this dialogue, Socrates is explaining the quality of life he is leading and who he is. The Apology is from the Greek word Apologia that means explaining, so Socrates is not apologizing but explaining his life and his stands. In his Apology, Socrates defends his verbal skills by saying that he should not be judged on that as he speaks whatever comes to his head. Socrates is explaining the virtues of a life lived with purpose and direction.

His aim is for everyone and his students to consider the choices they make in life, what mistakes they have, how to fix, and take action about it. He believes that history is essential, as everything that happens to a person and the body reacts, is a clear indication of the person’s identity. Socrates says human beings are responsible for their own destiny.

I agree with Socrates that a person needs to make some sense of direction in his life. This applies in life experiences as we are still in the process of formulating lives, and regular analysis is needed. These periodic evaluations will confirm lives have meaning, and we do not rely on luck. Accepting the mistakes we are doing in life and acting swiftly in correcting those makes living to have a purpose.

Aristotle is a Greek philosopher who continues the discussion on physics and metaphysics. Monism refers to any idea that objects that there are many different beings in the world. It is an overview on the fact that relations in the world are from one single idea. The principle may affect different forms such as brain, God, One, or matter. All things in the world are an indication of a unifying completely.

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Aristotle first concern in metaphysics theory is “why”? He offers his view of the four causes. It is in the sense that all things need an account including human activity and artistic creation. Aristotle identifies four kinds of things that the best answer the question why-the material, formal, efficient and final causes. The four causes develop descriptive rules that are unique to the study of nature. He considers these rules as meaningful theoretical framework for a successful exploration of the natural world. He also thinks that every student of nature needs master these principles before involving themselves in the investigation of any kind of the natural world.

According to Aristotle, knowledge composes certain truths that we get through regular truths of science and design and history. Wisdom means understanding the most general truths of all, which are the primary causes, and rules that govern everything. Philosophy gives the deepest knowledge of the world.

Aristotle does not provide answers to the puzzles that science creates but takes them as examples of the extreme situations between which he will try to analyze all through the rest of the metaphysics. This is true as one follows the four causes that Aristotle proposes.

Frederick Streng argues that the understanding of religious education is best, not as new concepts or information but as an understanding that is transforming. In his book, Fred interprets Nagarjuna’s emptiness within the framework of the religious life. It interprets the Buddhist doctrine Christian thought. In his life, he felt restricted to one religion and later in his life, he was a member of Unitarian Universalist Church. By terming religion as an issue of ultimate transformation, Fred means that we must try to take religion both subjectively and objectively, from inside and outside. This is not in terms of belief or construction of a religion but in terms of process.

Any particular process through which any person gains earnest desire and dream of moving towards fundamental transformation is holy. Fred’s definition of religion as a path towards ultimate transformation occurs in two processes: either within complex shape location or through transcendent. He goes on to say that for a person to see, the kind of religious following, he has, he must approach it to other alternate religions. This according to Fred may involve either a metaphorical sense of oneness beyond all religious discrepancies or valuation of complementary and different ways of other religions.

Fred’s definition of religion as an eventual transformation is reasonable because, as human beings, we need time and knowledge to analyze and choose a given religion. When we come to this world, we get up the religions of parents or legal guardians and confine ourselves to their beliefs without having a chance of exploring other alternative religions so that we can get personal choices. We concentrate on one religion to the level where we are happy to discredit the other religions without knowing what they are all about in their beliefs. Ultimate transformation gives us a chance to explore and see what the other religion beliefs are all about and this makes us more knowledgeable about religion.

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