1. What Means did the Government Use to Acquire Land by Treaty from the Cherokee?

The government of the United States, headed at that time by President Andrew Jackson, primarily used the outstanding conflict between the Cherokee Nation and the State of Georgia to force the Cherokees to cede their lands through the unauthorized “Treaty of New Echota” (Brown, 1972). It is important to note that, before Cherokee lands were seized by the government, the Cherokee people were already in dispute with the State of Georgia. The dispute was due to the rapid growth of the white population in the state, along with the discovery of gold at Dahlonega Georgia ultimately leading into the Georgia Gold Rush, wherein the government of Georgia began to acquire lands, as well as impose laws upon Cherokee territory (Brown, 1972).

The U.S. federal government already embroiled in the issue of State’s Rights was pressured to honor the Compact of 1802 agreement with Georgia. The government did not use its power to defend the claims of the Cherokee despite the Supreme Court ruling on Worcester vs. State of Georgia, stating that Georgia State could not enforce laws on Indian Territory, since only the national government has authority over Indian affairs. Ultimately, Cherokee lands were forcibly taken by the government through the so called Treaty of New Echota, although the ones who signed, the Treaty Party, did not represent the majority of the Cherokee Nation. According to provisions, it was stated that all Cherokee lands east of the river of Mississippi were to be given up in exchange of US$5 million and other considerations (Brown, 1972).

2. Dee Brown Calls theRremoval of the Cherokees the "Trail of Tears." Is this an Example of the Concept of "Presentism?" Were Most Americans Crying for the Cherokees when the Rribe was Forced toRrelocate West of the Mississippi River?

I think that Dee Brown calling the Cherokee removal as the “Trail of Tears” is not a form of “presentism.” It is important to note that the very term “Trail of Tears” was derived from the Cherokee term “nu na hi du na tlo hi lu ” meaning “The Trail Where They Cried.” Many Cherokee people died as they were forcibly relocated from homelands of their ancestors in the west of the Mississippi River. Therefore, the term “nu na hi du ha tlo hi lu ni” was the depiction of eyewitness Cherokees witnessing their relocation. Given that this is an account taken from first hand witnesses, I do not think that calling it the “Trail of Tears” is not a form of presentism.

From the Frederick Douglass Handout

1. What was Frederick Douglass's Relationship with his Family?

Frederick Douglass had a remote relationship with his family—he was already separated from his mother at a very early age, which was the common custom in their state; in addition, his mother already died when he was 10 (Taylor, 2007). However, it is interesting to note that he had a good relationship with his wife of his master, Sophia Auld, who secretly taught him how to read and write, despite this was forbidden by law. Despite opposition, this early struggle with the family never hindered him from educating himself.

2. What Kinds of Things did the “Slave Breaker," Covey, do to Try to Break the Spirit of Frederick Douglass?

Being the notorious “Slave-Breaker,” Covey primarily used abuse and punishment to break the spirits of the slaves (Taylor, 2007). In this case, Covey let Douglass works in the fields for very long hours, barely with meal breaks, until Douglass is exhausted (Taylor, 2007). In addition, Covey also punished Douglass through whipping for his alleged “awkwardness” at work (Taylor, 2007).

3. What does Douglass Say about the Effect of Slavery on the Owners? What Example From What He Saw in his Own Life does he Give?

According to Douglass, the primary effect of slavery to slave-owners is through moral corruption. Douglass points out that many slave-owners are tempted to rape or do adulterous relationships with slaves, causing wrack and havoc to the families (Taylor, 2007). One bright example, which Douglass gave, was the corruption of Sophia Auld, wherein she transformed to a “demon” due to the abusive role of slave-owners (Taylor, 2007).

4. What is the Significance of Frederick Douglass' Learning how to Read?

As Douglass has realized and as taught by Sophia Auld, learning is the way to freedom. Douglass discovered that slave-owners are forbidding slaves to learn, read or write, so that their ignorance would keep them from learning to yearn for freedom (Taylor, 2007). In this case, Douglass also found out that, through education, one can discover what is right and wrong, as well as the path to freedom from slavery (Taylor, 2007). Learning would capacitate the slaves to be independent of masters for survival, to be self sufficient and capable of freedom, so Douglass did his best to study (Taylor, 2007).

From the Article “Runaways from a Hellish System”

5. What was the Function of "Slave Patrols”? What Resources did an Average Slave Owner have Available to Find Runaway Slaves? What Might Happen to the Slave if He or She were Caught?

The functions of slave patrols were to enforce “discipline” upon slaves and police them while at work and capturing them whenever they escape from their masters (Franklin & Schweninger, 1990). An average slave owner usually had the economic and political resources to enforce the policing of slaves, and they pressured settlers to enforce laws that would institutionalize slave patrols for the welfare of slave-owners (Franklin & Schweninger, 1990). Whenever a slave is caught, there is a danger that he/she may be maimed or even killed as punishment (Franklin & Schweninger, 1990).

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