Reference 1

Niven, K. (2015). Can music with prosocial lyrics heal the working world? A field intervention in a call center. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 45, 132-138.


In this journal, the author examines whether music with prosocial lyrics could help to reduce aggressiveness of customers in the workplace. The study was based on the indication of laboratory tests that music with helping lyrics can reduce aggression. In this field experiment conducted in a call center, the investigator changed music that was played to customers. It was revealed that, unlike in the days when playing instrumental music in the work setting was allowed, employee exhaustion and anger were lower during the days when there was popular and neutral lyrics, but not prosocial lyrics. The conclusion was that music influences aggression, but prosocial lyric effect cannot be generalized.


This article was important, because it examined how music can affect aggression of employees. The source of the information is reliable. As it is a social psychology journal, it can be peer-reviewed to ensure that it meets standards set by professionals in that field of study. In fact, the journal has been published by one of the world’s renowned publishers, meaning that it met the stringent measures prescribed for such a publication. The journal starts with conceptual framework and then proceeds to methodology, data analysis, results, and discussion sections. The contents reflect the very conventional sections of any research material. It also has a reference section that shows where the literature used was obtained from.


Music is important in the workplace; however, the choice of the music matters even more. In choosing the music to play, the type of work environment has to be considered. There are working environments where popular and neutral music, but not prosocial, thrives well, and vice versa. Music that reduces aggression encourages harmonious working relationships between employees and customers that they serve. In the call center business, where a customer may have to hold on when others are still being served, the choice of background music may reduce caller’s anxiety, anger or emotional exhaustion.

Reference 2

Dhammika, K.A.S., & Padmasiri, M.K. D. (2014). The effect of music listening on work performance: A case study of Sri-Lanka. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 3(5), 118-122.


The authors of this journal have argued that the main focus of human resource management (HRM) sections of various organizations is to ensure effective use of human resource. It emphasizes that one of the strategies of effective utilization of human resource is to create an environment that eases the mind of a worker, thus reducing the stressors of the work environment. Playing background music is considered important in many organizations, especially in those that offer services to reduce stress and improve performance. In this research, the effect of background music on employee performance in a garment company was examined. The data gathered from the 50 machine operators showed that background music can create a friendly environment among workers.


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The authors have recognized the important role that the human resource departments of various organizations play in determining success. Apart from more predictable factors that affect employee performance, such as job satisfaction, pay, and labor relations management, the other important factor that requires serious consideration is listening to music in the workplace. With attained PhD in the area of human resource management, the authors have gathered valuable information on this study topic through research and teaching. Therefore, the information they have provided in the journal regarding listening to music in the workplace is reliable and consistent with the current practices.


Before implementing the decision to play music in the workplace, first it is important to discuss it with the employees. The authors have recognized extroverts who would have no problem listening to music while working and introverts who would not want to listen to music. Ideally, having a discussion with the two groups would help to have a common viewpoint regarding the decision to be implemented. Each group of employees should be given an opportunity to say why they support or not playing music while working. The type of music to use depends on the type of task. For instance, monotonous work could be accompanied by fast rhythm songs and vice versa.

Reference 3

Lesiuk, T. (2005). The effect of music listening on work performance. Psychology of Music, 33(2), 173-191.


Lesiuk (2005) conducted this study to determine the effect that listening to music has on work quality and timely execution of tasks among computer information system developers. This investigation was based on the realization that software designers who listened to music had increased positive effect. The data for the research was collected from 56 software developers from different companies in Canada. After analysis of the five-week data, the researcher found that positive effect as well as quality work were lowest where there is no music, and that more time was needed for completing task when music was removed. Thus, music was necessary for the positive mood change.


The article was written on the basis of a theoretical framework of beneficial cognitive influence of creativity on task performance. This enabled the researcher to develop the article from an informed view. Likewise, when a specific sample population was chosen, it became easier to choose an appropriate method for data analysis. In this case, a quantitative method for analysis was identified and used. Lastly, the author was able to identify the weaknesses of the study, so that future researchers could develop their studies with the current weaknesses in mind. Overall, this peer-reviewed article has valuable information, thus it could be used in a relevant study.


The author has discussed computer software developers and the challenges that they undergo in the execution of their daily duties. Through this information, one gets to know that different work environments have different challenges; however, music remains important in all cases. The inclusion of several previous literatures on music and work enables the reader to get clear understanding of the flow of the study. The findings of the article could contribute to achieving the objectives of the study. The other important aspects that have been included in the study include positive effect as well as task performance, which were critical in the development of the hypothesis.

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