The article is about civil war which was as a result of racial segregation amongst the Americans in 19th century. The writer argues that the war was a national war but not a southern war as it was perceived by many people. From the writer's point of view, northerners, southerners, and westerners responded in the same way to social, economic, legal, and political rebuild.  That misinterpretation led to the complexion of reconstruction process of the country during and after the civil war.

In addition, the writer argues that historians have been interpreting congressional reconstruction as a period when whites of southern region of United States unleashed racial violence against blacks. Historians argue that whites did that as a mean to resist government policies which promoted racial equality. Blacks responded to the violence which resulted into a civil war. Historians continue to say that collective war broke out after confederate attack on Fort Sumter after which it transcended the boundaries.

Furthermore, historians have continued to argue that there was a rise of racial segregation among middle-class whites especially, Irish Catholics, in correlation with formation of social class and political class boundaries in North.  They are said to have participated heavily into racial violence that broke out in New York City in 1863. In addition, the racial violence was composed of various crimes against humanity such as hangings, mob beatings among others to African Americans, which resulted to being the highest magnitude of racial violence to have occurred in history in the northern America during civil war and reconstruction period.

In addition, the writer says that racial motivated violence against African Americans was common in 1860s.  In southern America native whites had collectively humiliated, tortured and even killed many African Americans during era of slavery. Their unlawful practice was referred to as lynching by the whites of northern America. In the north, racism was also in existence, the working class whites had made African Americans their subjects in many ways such as employing them as domestic workers and in the end humiliating them.

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In addition, the writer says that analysis of period of the Civil War indicate that racial violence contributed much to the understanding of history of American lynching violence. In addition, the field of United States lynching studies is said to have taught us about lynching in the decades that followed the Reconstruction period. Moreover, historians from the southern America have also produced rich analyses about post bellum lynching violence which occurred below Mason-Dixon Line. Literature about the mob killings that took place in western and mid western regions of America also reveal that lynching had a national history in that victims of lynch were of diverse regions of the country.

Furthermore, the writer says that there exists a historical gap in American lynching. This is because people have little knowledge about existence of lynching before 1880s.  A historian, George C, in his study of racial aggression in Kentucky, he argues, that lynching existed throughout Reconstruction period in the South, up till now no studies since have thoroughly researched on the revolution of lynching violence that took place between 1860s and 1870s in the lower South of America. Recently, scholars have published indicative work about lynching violence that was in central Texas, Louisiana, and the Carolinas. Stephen J. Leonard's in his study about Colorado, he persuasively sketched the scope of lynching violence in the Western America between 1850s and 1860s, but people still are not convinced.

In conclusion, the article is educating and enjoyable to the leader. An individual gains knowledge on things that remain vague to our understanding about the Civil War and Reconstruction. In addition, the writer has used writing style that is good to every leader and shows seriousness of the article to the leader before and when reading it. The article has supportive historical evidences from scholars of both northern and southern parts of America and that truly makes the article a source of historical information.

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