Motive refers to the force that energizes an individual to carry out a certain task for a specific goal. Emotions controls specific motives and then it integrates the motivated behavior into an individual’s social interactions. When a student wants to attain good grade he is motivated to work hard. The emotions of future happiness encourage him to work harder and the emotional fear of failure may prevent him from being promoted to the next level also sustains his achievement.
Drive reduction theory states that individuals have physiological needs that if not satisfied, there is tension that arises. When the need is satisfied the tension reduces.
Homeostasis on the other hand involves keeping the body in a balanced state. For example, when a person is hungry the body sugar level reduces. After eating adequate quantity of food, the
sugar level increases. Insulin is then produced to keep the body sugar in balance. This relates closely to drive reduction theory whereby when a need is satisfied the tension caused by the drive is reduced and the body returns to the relaxation state.
Arousal theory states that different individuals perform better at different levels of
arousal and each individual try to find its best level. A football player will only perform well
when he is happy to play (optimum arousal) .This is completely different from the drive
reduction theory whereby a person is forced to perform when the need arises to reduce the
tension caused by the drive.
An interaction between members of a similar or different species to cause humiliation or pain is called aggressive behavior. Among the genders, males are considered to be more physically aggressive than the women who tend to apply non-violent aggression (Sawalani and Little, 156). Similarly, culture also largely determines aggression. Kung Bushmen are “harmless people” (Marshall, 78) .Hunters and gatherers have nothing to fight over but they can interact over status and mating opportunities.
Temperament in infants and children refers to those aspects of their personality that determine how they fit in their environment (Thomas et al., 68).These traits are considered to be inherited rather than learned.
Erikson came up with stages that each individual must go through from birth to old age. These include;
i. Trust versus mistrust: From birth to 18 months the infants learn to trust their parents or any other caregivers and mistrust other people who don’t take care of them.
ii. Autonomy versus shame or doubt: Between 18 months and 3 years, the children starts playing with objects and when the mothers become harsh they develop doubt and shame.
iii. Initiative versus guilt: Between 3and 6 years, children learns how to do things on their own and when they realize that the initiative doesn’t produce desired results, they feel guilty.
iv. Industry versus inferiority: Between six and twelve years, children start discovering themselves. They try to do things in a more responsible manner .When they realize that they incapable of meeting the expectations of their teachers and parents, they feel inferior.
v. Identity versus role confusion: The adolescents are concerned with concentration on class work, occupational identity and sexual identity. This leads to role confusion.
vi. Intimacy versus isolation: Young adults still want to blend with friends. They don’t want to be isolated .Therefore; the intimacy is brought about by fear of rejection.
vii. Generativity verses stagnation: Generativity is the concern for the next generation. During middle adulthood, a person who contributes towards raising a family develops a sense of generativity while one who is self Centered develops a sense of stagnation.
- Integrity versus despair: From 65 years onwards, the seniors explore their past life .If they have accomplished their goals successfully, they develop integrity while if they have not been successful they develop a sense of despair.
During late adulthood, intellectual ability tends to decline. As compared to adolescents, adult thinking is more personal, integrative and is highly committed to the career and one’s family responsibilities.