When exposed to the sunlight, the 7-dehydrocholestral (7-DHC) in the skin converts to pre-vitamin D3. Depending on the heating process, the pre-vitamin D3 is immediately converted to vitamin D3. After a loss of hair that keeps the skin cool, the light skin pigmentation appears enabling the entry of sunlight rays for the catalyst in the synthesis of vitamin D that is important for the maternal bone.

Melanin determines the color of the skin, including the hair. The level of melanin depends on the extent of exposure to the sunlight. This exposure increases the production of melanin which protects the skin from harmful ultraviolet rays.

Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the maintaining the normal calcium and phosphate blood level, which is needed in the mineralization of bones, contraction of muscles and the general cell muscular functions in the body. Vitamin D also modulates the transcription of the proteins cycle of cells and increases the cell differentiation of specialized cells in the body. Lack of vitamin leads to skin related diseases such as skin cancer (Haferkamp & Smelser 45).

The San Bushmen are well known hunters, however, their diet is mostly vegetarian. They lead a traditional hunting and gathering life. Such a way of life remarkably maintains health in a good condition. The Chukchi, on the other hand, earn living by the sea mammal hunting. Both cultural groups do not practice farming or livestock keeping, as they do not have a concept of land ownership or owning of animals.

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The Chukchi live primarily along the coastal line, where they have plenty of water, while the San Bushmen live in the dry areas and believe that water has a magical power and is capable of reviving them. The Chukchi people personify the Sun, the Moon and the stars to stay alive. They turn to them in prayers, spells and offer sacrifices in their honor. These sacrifices relate to the reindeer, as their entire life depends on the reindeer herd. The San Bushmen, on the other hand, believe in a Greater or Lesser God (Supreme Being). The Bushmen believe that diseases and bad lack are caused by the spirit of the dead, as the ancestral spirits are believed to play an influential role for the living. However, they do not perform rituals as a way of appeasing their ancestors (Michael 15).

The old age theory typically means a contact that exists between the societies of the old world. The old age theory involves the origin of species through natural selection processes. It also involves the scientific theory that the populations’ diversity of life descended from a common origin through an evolution that indicated a branching pattern. The old age theory, despite the numerous criticisms, can be important in contributing to the evolutionary elements of triggering and sustaining the change mechanisms and triggering the direction and processes of changes in the modern world. 

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