According to Abraham Maslow, the human behavior can be explained by the needs they strive to satisfy in their lives. It is because of those reasons that Maslow came up with the theory of the “hierarchy of needs” hence showing his association with the humanistic nature in relation to management approach (Nanda, p.170). Ever since the theory was created, many people especially in the work places have come to appreciate the Maslow theory hence being applicable up to date.
When implementing the hierarchical theory, Maslow had in mind that when the needs of a person are satisfied, then the motivator aspects ceases to be, since the motivation is usually brought about due to human being not feeling satisfied.
Some of the Maslow’s hierarchical needs are psychological or survival needs which comprises of food, shelter, clothing, water, warmth and sleep. For the workers to give out better productivity in an organization, managers need to motivate them in a such a way they will be in a position to meet the mentioned needs since, some basic needs can lead to tensions which can end up influencing a person into developing work attitude and behaviors (Schermerhorn, 2010, p.37). In doing so, there is need for the managers to pay them better salaries, giving them free lunch at time. That is the concept most organizations have adopted today.
With the above needs put in place, then there is need for security and safety needs to be considered among employees. Earlier on, employees’ security was expressed in terms of physical aspect but today, most employees want to be assured of their financial safety, job security and even socially (Nanda, 2006, p.171). For the security issues to be met, then it means the employers will have to permanently employ their employees and give them pensionable terms. Also the employees need not to threaten, harm or instill any other emotional mishaps to their employees since this will act as a de-motivational factor among the employees.
Social needs or belonging needs have also been embraced in most organizations today. Most employees feel motivated when they are allowed to associate with one another, feel accepted by others, creating friendship among themselves and feeling loved. What most managers do is ignoring such virtues that are needed by the employees in the organization hence becoming a threat to an organization. Most managers want to control the employees’ social life instead of giving them physiological satisfaction which involves social forum creation, allowing formation of informal groups and fostering family atmosphere thus making them to become resistant to the organizational objectives, antagonistic and uncooperative. All such kind of behavior should be controlled for the organization to succeed (Mosley, & Pietri, 2010, p.200).
With the social needs in place, the ego or self-esteem needs will follow. This ego comes in two categories which are those in relation to self-confidence, independence, achievements, competence and possessing some knowledge. The second category is that which comprises of ones reputation which involves the status, recognition, appreciation and respect to each other especially among the colleagues (Mosley, & Pietri, 2010, p.200).
This kind of needs among the employees normally happens when they feel that they have achieved something and needs to be recognized. However to satisfy the employees ego, there is need for the employer to reward those employees who are performing well in an organization.
After the satisfaction of all the above theories have been accomplished, the final Maslow hierarchical theory that needs to be implemented in an organization today is the self-fulfillment or self-actualization needs. This theory was meant to enable the employee to be in a position of realizing his/her potential by developing him/herself and becoming creative when it comes to the work he/she is doing. By doing so, one-self dream would have been achieved. That is why managers in an organization should make sure they fulfill the needed theories since lack of the above fulfillment may lead to most employees concentrating on the self-actualization.
With the above theories, it is quite clear that in an organization today, there is need to fulfill one’s need before the other one comes up. That is why at a given time, Maslow indicated that a man is like a wanting animal whose needs should be partially satisfied and partially unsatisfied at the same time (Nanda, 2006, p.171).
When we look further at the theory of motivational by Maslow, other two theories who are known to be in association with what Maslow had written before are Douglas McGregor and Fredrick Herzberg. McGregor came out in two separate and contrasting assumptions in regard to the human behavior and the way most managers related with their workers. Those theories were theory X and theory Y.
Theory X was meant to show the weaker or negative side of the employees hence passing the assumption of control and direction. Most of those employers who have adopted theory X tend to assume that, most employees are lazy, not aggressive to their jobs but instead they tend to work for their survival means. Those employees, who do so, will try within their means to avoid responsibilities that come on their way. Such employees are always ready to encounter some challenges in life. The theory goes further to say that employees must be coerced, given some challenges and be threatened in order for them to be dedicated to their work and achieve the needed goals and objectives. Such employees are normally un-ambitious and are always seeking for job security in the place of work (Sapru, 2006, p.197). Theory X is seen to be the best motivator when it comes to reward and punishing such employees in an organization.
Another McGregor theory is theory Y which is seen to give a positive image about the employees in an organization. This gives the managers a perception that employees are always hardworking especially with the way they work and assume that it is natural of them of them to do so. Apart from the hard work of the employees, employers also know that the employees are committed to the set goals of organization. This has been the trend of late and that is why most organizations are succeeding with their objectives. Employees are also viewed to accept and seek some responsibilities of their work and they can also make decisions, and they are always creative in their work (Miner 2007, p.200).
For Herzberg, his theory was based on the working conditions of the workers which were based on hygiene. He came up with two factors in his theory which were the motivation and hygiene. By the hygiene factor, what Herzberg meant was those factors that surrounded the working environment which were also known as the extrinsic factors. These extrinsic factors were such as the job security, working conditions, organizational rules and policies, relationships with the employees, the salary and many more which were meant to decide on the motivation of the workers.
On the motivator factors Herzberg focused on the internal factors that are related to the job. These factors were such as the challenges in the job, responsibilities, independence, achievements, advancements and recognition which were meant to be the determinant of job satisfaction.