Abortion is the expulsion of the contents of the womb before the actual term of birth which is usually nine months. The subject of abortion has received vast attention from all corners of the world. The subject presents two sides of argument that has not found a lasting solution. Abortion has always been a particularly controversial subject that has been the topic of discussion many times by the pro-choice and pro-life groups. In this instance, the pro-life fraction is obstinately against abortion while the pro-choice people uphold that it is the mother’s choice and decision whether to abort or not. Irrespective of the debates related to the subject, abortion is and will always remain an immoral act performed by the mother. There are three main types of abortion, and all of them are horrendous and gruesome. The process of abortion in turn, causes several health risks to the mother and any other future pregnancies. For this reason, the thought of abortion can be astoundingly unethical. Several states and authorities have come up with different reasons and evidence which seeks to support the legalization of abortion. Some of the reasons in support of legalization of abortion ranges from poverty, rape, health, and education of the mother at stake but this are not reasons enough to terminate growing life. This study paper seeks to provide supporting evidence for both sides of arguments- pro-life and pro-choice in relation to abortion.


The initial case related to abortion was in 1979, the case of Bellotti v. Baird. The ruling court, United States Supreme Court, ruled that minors be accorded the chance to approach a court for consent to have an abortion without first seeking their parent’s consent. Since then, there have been several cases in different courts concerning abortion from different aspects. The historical information on abortion has grown with different states finding reasons to legalize abortions while others still remain in the battle of whether to legalize or not. As mentioned above, there are three types of abortions namely, hysterectomy, abortions from the uterus, and salt poisoning. Pro-life fraction comprises of people brought together by their religion standings, political opinions, and society against abortion. From various records, religious organizations and churches form the majority of people against the abortion principle. Most groupings are of the ideology that abortion is a short, simple, and clean process. However, this has and will never be the case because of the various medical protocols involved in the process of abortion (Kapralos, 2010).

The pro-life group mainly considers the life aspect of a human being. According to this argument, life begins at conception and, therefore, the mothers should give the child a chance to live. More so, abortion involves various post abortion dangers which haunt the mother in many ways. For starters, the mental health of a mother who has undergone the abortion process has the probability to suffer after the procedure. It is notable that women who carry their pregnancy to the required term end up happy and less stressed than those who opt to abort. In addition to mental suffering, women who chose abortion is vulnerable to many other health hazards. In the event of a subsequent pregnancy, the woman stands high chances of miscarriages, premature delivery, and infant death after birth. All the above risks are possible to women who undergo the abortion process because of the different equipments and chemicals used in the process. In most cases, the abortionist stretches the womb opening in 30 to 60 seconds and in the normal instances the duration should be over 10 or more hour of natural labor. The faster methods used to stretch the womb muscles weakens the vaginal muscles for later pregnancies. Apart from the medical reasons associated with abortions, the entire act is an extremely immoral.

The pro-life group contrasts with the pro-choice faction on the issue of the fetus feeling any pain during the abortion process. The pro-choice group claims that there is no pain now because the fetus is still lifeless. However, scientists have in the past studies indicated that the fetus is capable of feeling pain, and it undergoes agonizing torment during the process. According to Dr. Paul Ranalli, there are three signs, which show that the fetus feels pain through the process. Biology indicates that a baby body organs forms and starts working in the fifth week of pregnancy, and this includes the heart. Therefore, any thoughts to terminate a pregnancy through abortion makes the process murder. The baby growing inside the mother’s womb substantially depends on her for everything and making a decision terminate means choosing to murder someone. During the abortion process, the fetus tends to withdraw from painful stimulations and more so, blood sample from the fetus had two types of stress hormones present in adults, in pain. On a religious aspect, anyone consenting to abortion contravenes God’s will on creation. The creation inside the mother’s womb is not only a child but also God’s child. In this case, the decision to kill or let the child live should be left to God and not to people. On the other hand, the pro-choice group considers factors such as pregnancy from rape cases. This tragedy leaves many people confused of the steps to take especially in cases where the rape results to pregnancy.

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In the case, of rape, the pro-life group advocates for carrying the pregnancy to the full term instead of terminating the pregnancy. Many people are childless and wish to adopt children; therefore, the raped woman can give birth to the child and seek adoption services.  Statistics indicate that there are over 200,000 couples wishing to adopt a child and the available children are only 25,000! In another argument, pro-life group advocates for the discontinuation of abortion because of the bloodshed involved (Jimenez, 2007).

The pre-choice faction believes that women have the right to choose whatever happens in their life and to their bodies. The pro-choice work with the principal that murder will be that which occurs a day after the birth of the baby. The most supporting evidence in this case is that abortion helps save lives especially for women whose health is at stake. Allowing abortion will make issues such as pregnancy arising from rape and incest cases. Raising a child from rape can be traumatizing to the mother. Rape refers to the engaging in sexual act under force or threats especially on the individual’s life. Carrying on the pregnancy to the full term will be a constant reminder to the mother of the dreadful act which took place in her life. Abortion can be performed for several reasons one of them being to avoid such traumas in women’s lives (Rose, 2007).

Another supporting ideology of abortion is that a professional medical doctor can safely carry out the process. In this case, the medics will ensure that the health side effects do not occur. In most countries, the law regards abortion as illegal which makes many doctors to refrain from the practice. This only pushes women seeking to abort to use unprofessional methods and doctors which in turn pose several risks to their lives. In this argument, legalizing abortion will avoid such occurrences hence protect the life of women. Most women seeking abortion services from quack medics end up with issues such as abdominal pain, cramping, inflammation, hemorrhage, and future infertility. Unprofessional doctors undertaking the abortion process may destroy the uterus and as a result, make later reproduction impossible for the other (Jacob, 2006).

Finally, abortion prevents the poor people from worsening their already desperate situations. When a poor mother gets pregnant, the right move should be to allow the termination of the pregnancy because of lack of finances to provide for an extra child. The mother’s will to terminate the pregnancy will result in a reduction, in their state insolvency. An American economist and activist of pro-choice, Levitt, argues that a pregnant, poor mother will not have further access to contraception and acquisition of drugs. The abortion option seems reasonable and economically viable because raising a child can be hugely expensive. For instance, there is a need for specified diets, clinic appointments, dietary supplements, and security which all need money. Enabling accessibility of abortion makes it easy for the public health sector to make a budget for the same and provide skilled treatment. This will in turn increase the survival of the mother. Further argument indicates that the government will end up spending less, than in the case when the practice would have been made illegal (World Health Organization, 2009).


Despite the fact that neither side recognizes it, there is usually much more consentment than disagreement between the opposing opinions. The majority of the population believes that every creation requires protection of life and has a right to live. Life, even for a child, is a precious thing that deserves full protection of the law. However, the other group advocate for the reduction of social problems, which arises from child neglect and urban overcrowding. In addition, the pro-choice groups promote the ability of women to make their own decisions concerning pregnancy. From the above discussion, it is evident that the focus of argument is whether the fetus is a human being which deserves all the rights and privileges accorded to human beings.

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