It is beyond doubt that numerous negotiations in criminal set ups are of psychological manner. Such crises surround individuals with soundly known and excellently developed psychological conditions.  Evidently, these are individuals with considerable chaotic backdrops, which have resulted into deeply sited psychological cases. These kinds of individuals fail to contain themselves within civilly prescribed limits. The result is chaotic sceneries that is in need of excellent negotiation skills as well as a complete comprehension of such set ups. This paper researches on such a psychological characterized case of dealing with a suspect with an antisocial personality disorder. In this regard, the case of paranoid personality disorder is extensively considered.

Psychological Disturbance and Negotiations

McMains & Mullins (2010) denote that the establishment of negotiations within the criminal containment units was the result of the prevalence of psychological cases in numerous hostage scenarios. This motivated the comprehension of psychologically disturbed personages to facilitate the conclusion of such case. Reportedly, key amid the numerous emotional situations entailed paranoid schizophrenics, Manic-depressed psychotics, inadequate personality conditions and antisocial personality condition, (McMains & Mullins, 2010). These conditions had increased considerably in the past decades with 52% to 91% of all hostage situations attributable to psychological instability across the various states.

Given this backdrop, there is need to discriminate amid the confusing cases of emotional illness and disturbance. McMains & Mullins (2010) observe that the statistical declarations are confusing and may indicate that almost all criminal negotiation scenarios are of a psychological kind. Practicably, any spontaneous confrontation normally evokes considerable emotional reactions. However, the cases of mental condition have the characteristic of physical abnormalities undefined within the optimal human interactions. Strentz (2006) defines psychological disorder as a mental situation that entails difficulties in such mental functionalities as thinking, feeling and a distorted perception.

Vecchi, Hasselt & Romano (2005) agreeably suggest that the complexity of these conditions requires an exemplary study of the cases and subsequent conclusions to mitigate the possible dangers posed by such situations. Additionally, numerous forceful and militant techniques employed in the past had only succeeded in the elimination of the threats with diminishing success. However, Miller (2005) observes that with the present state of the art techniques, the containment of such conditions was considerably successful.

The case of Paranoid Personality Disorder

According to Bernstein & Useda (2007), the paranoid case has the characteristic of pervasive deficient trust of persons within the surroundings of the patient. It also entails quarrelsome behavior, physical resentment, psychologically instigated coldness, hypersensitive reactions to healthy criticism, stubbornness and characteristic strictly held maladaptive attitude towards others’ intents.  These individuals have internalized the perception that personages within their surroundings have malevolent motives.

Miller (2005) agreeably suggests that these individuals have a characteristic extreme paranoia of events within their surroundings. Evidently, the nature of human existence involves considerable level of paranoia. Bernstein & Useda (2007) suggest that in normal circumstances, the human nature is such that it has an explained paranoia that results from such fears as a worry of an impending catastrophe.  However, the case of paranoid disorder extends to areas where there are no evident dangers.

Given this description, the resultant picture is of an individual deeply concerned with the presence of imagined or practical signs of threat with contemptible distrust of others as well as a deficient trust of seemingly benign physical presentation of things. According to Bernstein & Useda (2007), in numerous cases, the ability to see danger in virtually every physical form within their surroundings results in multiple physical confrontations that are marked by violent incidences. 

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Additionally, these grouping tend to hold grudges with virtually everything within their surroundings. Furthermore, within the family setup, they are individuals who are pathologically resentful and are preoccupied by their associate’s imagined sexual infidelities amid other numerous disagreements.  Evidently, these observations typify a critical psychological situation that may result in countable criminal cases. Their imagined enemies amid relatively benevolent surroundings castigate a serious hostage situation.

Bernstein & Useda (2007) observes that criminal cases may equally result from a potential infringement into their established areas of control. Apparently, in certain cases of such level of sickness, based on their mistrust of others, they build a level of self-sufficiency that expels everyone, including close family associates. Observably, such a case is typical in individuals with considerable sense of autonomy. This results in the establishment of strong control of all their affairs as well as their families and areas of interest.

Bernstein & Useda (2007) suggest that such a case is apparent is individuals with persistent criticism of others, rigid and with dismal collaboration with others. Additionally, despite the extensive criticism and deficient benevolence towards others, they react angrily to criticism directed towards them. Based on this discussion, examples of such traits are claims of harassment from colleagues who are rather benign towards him. Overall, they exemplify beliefs that are plausible but in dissimilar respects are increasingly unfounded.

Treatment of Paranoid Personality Condition

The treatment of paranoid personality condition is a complex process. Bernstein & Useda (2007) observes that despite numerous literatures describing the condition, dismal sections offers plausible treatment procedures. Reportedly, the rationale behind this attribute is the knowledge exemplified by numerous clinicians that the conditions are relatively untreatable. From the aforementioned literary discussions, it is evident that this clinical stand results from the characteristics of the patients suffering from the condition.

The literature has established that these individuals are characteristically difficult to treat. This has a basis on their mistrust of any potential assistance, clear antagonism, evident introversion, consummate rigidity amid numerous other attributes that presents a formidable challenge to any plausible clinical therapeutic trials. Bernstein & Useda (2007) observe that therapy is dependant on the individual’s ability to inspire a trusting relation with a psychoanalyst. Furthermore, the success of therapy is dependant on the ability of an individual to examine one’s own inadequacies and assumptions about individuals within his surroundings.

Despite this evident difficulty, Bernstein & Useda (2007) suggest that therapeutic approaches that emphasize an effortless accommodative client based approach are the most effective approaches. Given the paranoia effects, it is almost impossible to build a rapport. Given this inability to trust and open up about such issues, such interactions are in numerous cases short-lived. However, with persistence, the clients usually open up about their panoramic conditions. In Bernstein & Useda (2007), it is evident that building a complete trust is a time consuming and reliant on patience and understanding of the client. An apparent difficulty in the treatment is the ability to remain objective. Bernstein & Useda (2007) analysis is suggestive that dealing with such cases requires a complete directness. Similarly, there are considerable medicated prescriptions that are applicable in alleviating certain aspects of the condition.   


The resolution of hostage situations has in numerous cases taken hours and in some cases several days. Evidently, this is dependant on the complexity surrounding the situation. This complexity is defined by the aspects of psychological conditions of the instigators. The varied literature pieces considered in this article agree that a complete comprehension of the mental wellness of the instigators is of paramount significance in the resolution of such predicaments. Conditions such as paranoid personality condition are amid multifaceted psychological situations that are increasingly difficult to resolve. However, with contemporary technical enhancements, such situations are eventually resolved.

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