Mutations may cause a cancer to spread to the nearby surrounding cells. Cells can become neoplastic; the ability of cancerous cells to migrate to other health cells due to mutation. Cells are able to become immortal or be able to disrupt healthy cells because of mutation. Therefore mutation steers development or growth of cancer in healthy and affected cells. Chain reactions that results in cells as a result of cell errors often result in cancer. Cell errors that have the ability to cause more errors are the root cause of cancer. This also explains why it is not easy to cure or treat cancer. These is the reason why even if a physician may manage to destroy all cancerous cells expect five, the five cells may send signals to other healthy cells making the initial process to start afresh. It’s like a rebellious act against evolution making the fittest to survive as the weak perish.

Many researches that have been conducted in order to determine the main cause of cancer; the causes usually revolves around agents which may be viruses and mutations. These two components play a significant role in development of cancer. Other researches have mainly concentrated on the nature of the genetic damage that causes cancer. These are some of the aspects that greatly contributes to progression or development of cancer. The origin of cancer has been dated back to mutations that occur in the DNA. These mutations usually affect the normal growth of cells resulting to metastasis. Mutations in the DNA cells are referred to as mutagens but those that cause cancerous cells are carcinogens. Tobacco smoking is one of the main causes of many forms of cancer (Varricchio and American Cancer Society, 2004).

Effects of smoking tobacco

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Tobacco smoking cause about 90% of all cancers of the lungs. A big number of mutagens are carcinogens. An example of carcinogen that is not a mutagen is alcohol. Therefore alcohol stimulates cancer because it promotes higher rate of cell division. Exponential cell division is risky because it reduces the time that could have been used to repair cell errors. Therefore mutations are likely to occur when cell division is very fast. Tobacco has been proved to cause cancer through the researches that have been conducted. The analysis of tobacco indicated that it contains more than fifty types of known carcinogens. Some of these carcinogens include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as nitrosamines (Anderson, 2009). One in three of all cancer deaths are as a result of usage of tobacco. It’s important to realize that increased smoking is the major cause of rampant cancer infection. Some cancers can be as a result to exposure to some ionizing radiation and good example is exposure to radon gas. Intensive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) that is emitted by sun can cause skin malignancies or cancers. Frequent exposure to CT scans may expose one to cancer.

Other causes of cancer are through infection for instance viral infections. Hepatitis virus in humans can result to liver cancers. Currently a vaccine to prevent cancer has been developed its called Gardasil. These vaccine works against four types of HP viruses that cause cervical cancer as well as genital warts. Presence of bacteria in the linings of the stomach can also cause gastric cancer. HIV infections also result to some cancers for instance cervical and anal cancers. This is mainly as a result of a compromised immune system. Cancers that can be inherited include breast cancer as well as ovarian cancers though most cancers are not innate. Cancer cannot be transmitted to another person.


In attempt to fight cancer the world has resolved to cancer screening and its usually conducted to asymptomatic population. This is important for early detection of the disease which is essential in its treatment. In most cases cancer is detected after screening or due to presence of some of it symptoms. There are a number of ways that are useful in managing cancer and they include monoclonal antibody therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and surgery and radiation therapy among many other methods. These methods are used depending on the stage, location and the tumor grade. One of the main objectives in cancer treatment is safe removal of the tumor without any damage. Cancer has many great negative social impacts on an individual’s life and that is the reason behind the financial, social support and counseling that cancer patients receive. Cancer can be avoided by not indulging in risky habits (Pories, Moses and Lotz, 2009).

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