Cardiac cycle is a series of events which take place when human heart beats. The cycle involves two phases, the diastole phase and systole phase. During the diastole phase, the heart's ventricles are relaxed and the heart is filled with the blood, while in systole phase, there is a contraction of the ventricle to pump the blood to the arteries. The cycle is complete when the heart is filled with blood and that blood is consequently pumped out of the heart to other body parts, (Auburn, 2008). The events that take place in the first and second systole phase occur simultaneously and so do diastole phase events. What happens to the cardiac cycle when a patient has a myocardial infarction (MI)? It occurs when blood clot appears and stops normal blood flow in the heart or coronary artery.

 If a patient has MI, his coronary artery is blocked, the heart muscle that receives blood from this artery lacks oxygen and blood supply (Liang, 2008).

As a result, the  chances of the heart muscle to die due to oxygen debt increases. unless the blockage is promptly corrected. Blockage of one of the serious coronary artery affects heart muscle. For patients who manage to survive MI, the heart muscle that infarcts or dies is substituted by a scar tissue in about few weeks. What might EKG show? EKG is referred to a simple painless test that indicates the heart's electrical activity. To conceptualize, EKG test allows an understanding of how the heart works. An electrical signal is sent from the bottom of the heart with every heartbeat.

The movement of the signal leads to contraction of the heart and the subsequent pumping of blood. The process reoccurs with every new heartbeat. EKG signal determines the heartbeat rhythm. EKG indicates the following: the speed of heartbeat whether the patient’s heartbeat rhythm is irregular of steady, the timing and strength of electrical signal, as they go through each part of the heart. Medical doctors use EKG to study and detect various heart problems like arrhythmias, heart failure and heart attack. The results of the test can indicate similar disorders that prevent heart function. 

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Other Tests that Confirm the Diagnosis

Other tests of cardiac disease include chest x-ray or electrocardiogram (EKG) which is the main test to detect heart murmur and reveal signs of cardiac disease.  

To diagnose the condition, the doctor will ask the patient about the realized signs and symptoms. Chest x-ray reveals enlargements of certain parts of the heart, presence of fluid in the lungs and presence of calcium deposits in the heart. It assists the doctor to learn the type of defects, their severity and any other associated heart problem. Echocardiography uses sound wave to generate a heart moving image as it beats.  

Transducer device transfers sound wave round the wall of the ribs, and the resulting echo is converted into heart images on a computer screen. The echo reveals the shape and size of
the heart chamber and valves, how quick the heart is pumping blood and if the valve has back flow or is narrow.

Risk Factors and Their Prevention

Risk factors for MI include smoking, obesity, hypertension, inactivity, high cholesterol and diet among others. People who have diabetes also have a higher risk of getting MI. MI is genetic and the risk can be determined by family history, as well. For example, if one person in the family history had the disease, the subsequent generation has high chances of getting the condition too. Also, some ethnic groups, like British Asian have high chances of getting cardiovascular disease (Langfy, 2002).

People with smoking habits are encouraged to stop, and overweight individuals are similarly encouraged to lose weight in order to reduce the heart workload and lower blood pressure. Physical activities like walking, cycling, swimming, dancing, bricking and gardening will help to prevent the condition.

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