Early Renaissance art in Italy in 1400 to 1479 was another great works of art in the Renaissance era. Although Giotto and Pisanos had followers and students, the first truly artists emerged in Florence in 1401. They were competing to sculpture a set of bronze doors of Florence Cathedral Baptistery; this completion drew the attention of seven young sculptors who included Donatello, Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti who won. Brunelleschi was famous for his great architect work like the Florence Cathedral dome and San Lorenzo Church. He also created several sculptural works which included crucifix in Santa Maria Novella that was known for its naturalism. He was also renowned for his greatest sculptor of early Renaissance; he made an erotic statue of David at the republic of Florentine. He had also a great monument of Gattamelata; this was greatest bronze art to be created since the times of Romans. By the end of Early Renaissance, the Italian art was marked as beginning. There was a commission that drew group of artist together, this was when Pope Sixtus IV rebuilt the Papal Chapel, and he named it Sistine chapel. Artists like Perugino, Ghirlandaio, Botticelli and Cosimo Rosseli were commissioned to decorate its walls. They were to depict the Life of Moses and Christ in their appearance. These artists utilized linear, lighting and atmospheric perspective technique.

Another great art in the Renaissance era was high Renaissance art in Italy in 1475 to 1525. An artist Leonardo da vinci was to perfect further the pictorial art aspects like linear, lighting as well as atmospheric perspective. Other pictorial art aspects included foreshortening, characterization and anatomy. He adopted the oil paint to be his main media towards depicting the light and its effects on the objects and landscape. This depicted to be more naturally and also with great dramatic effects like never before. This was clearly demonstrated in the Mona Lisa art. Michelangelo was Leonardo’s younger contemporary artist who took a different direction. Another great painter a part from Michelangelo and Leonardo during the High Renaissance era was Raphael. Raphael painted great portraits like that of Pope Julius II. He also painted the portrait of Pope Leo X as well as that of Christ child and Madonna (Celenza 89).       David by Michelangelo at Accademia Gallery at Florence

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High Renaissance era was represented in Northern Italy by the religious paintings of Giovanni Bellini. It also included several art pieces which were referred to as Sacred Conversation. It showed a group of saints surrounding the enthroned Madonna. The major art piece during the high Renaissance era was the assumption of the virgin, this combined drama and human action drama, and it had spectacular atmosphere and colour.

Black Death was a plague that caused people to change their view on the world, this plague hit Europe between 1348 and 1350. Italy was the one that was hit most by this plague. This plague caused many thinkers to dwell or think more on their lives rather than afterlife and spirituality. Black Death caused a new wave of piety which was manifested in religious works of art sponsorship. This Black Death pandemic affected all parts of Europe and not Italy alone. Black Death had a high impact on the arts during the renaissance era. The triumph of Death was the art which reflected the terror and social upheaval that was followed by the plague, the plague devastated medieval Europe. The triumph of death was the art by Pieter Bruegel’s. Another great art was The Dance of Death; it was inspired by Black Death. The Dance of Death was an allegory on death universality as well as common painting motif in medieval period.

Reformation is referred to as movements that occur, during the Renaissance era. Some of the reformations included protestant reformation; this was by Martin Luther, who tried to reform the Roman Catholic Church. This reformation resulted to schism which grew to a very wide movement. Another major reformation was Counter Reformation which was Catholic Church response to Protestants. During the same era, there was English reformation. This reformation led to England church breaking away from pope’s and Roman Catholic Church authority. Other reforms that took place included radical reformation, Scottish reformation and reformation in Switzerland (Thorndike 89). 

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