Cloning is a broad technology that allows   generation of populations of genetically identical cells, plants, animals and even molecules.  It involves creation of identical copies of the biological matter. Cloning is one of the many examples of biotechnology which is a process in which involve manipulation of physical and molecular make up of living organisms. Biotechnology is the science of 20th century and with advancement in tools and techniques used in the process biotechnology as utilized sciences of biology, chemistry, computers physics, engineering and information technology to develop tools and techniques that hold greater promise for human race. For centuries human beings have tried to select the  seed of crops they cultivate  but with the advent of biotechnology human beings are able to harness the identified cells at an atomic level to help in development of safer and more beneficial crops, bio fuels , medical treatments and finally housed hold products(Briggs and King, 440).

The first case of cloning was done by the Scottish scientist at Roslin Institute when they created the highly celebrated sheep named dolly. The resreach aroused world interest regarding the possibilities of human cloning and the implications it created on its moral and ethical grounds. There are two types of cloning: recombinant DNA technology or simply DNA cloning, reproductive cloning and finally therapeutic cloning. DNA cloning is also referred to as molecular cloning, gene cloning or recombinant technology and involves the transfer of fragments of selected DNA from an organism into the replicating element e.g. bacterial plasmid where it is then propagated in a foreign host cell, (Lopez, 47).

This technology as been used since the 1970's and it forms one of the common p practices in the modern labs of molecular biology. Reproductive cloning technology generates an animal that posses similar DNA an existing animal or an animal that previous existed. (Briggs and King, 440).Dolly sheep was a consequence of reproductive cloning which involve of a transfer of genetic material from the nucleus of the donating adult animal to an egg nucleus. The egg undergoes reconstruction process through the use of DNA from the donor cell which is treated with chemical or even electric current to stimulate process of cell division. Third type of cloning is the therapeutic cloning which is also referred to as embryo cloning and this involve the production of human embryos which are used for research purposes of harvesting stem sells which play a critical role in the study of human development and treatment of disease contrary of the claims of creating human cloned individuals or beings (Claudia, par 5).

Concept of Change in the Society

The concept of change is the driving force being the biotechnology especially on the cloning and humans has wanted to experiment on new ideas and come up with solutions to common problems like discovering of treatments to curb life threatening diseases like cancer. With the advent of cloning human being have been able to replicate or manipulate genetic make up of living things to yield new desired results. Therefore as new discoveries are made it requires that there is a shift in the ways the psychology take sits responsibility in ensuring that individual s and society remains in line hence allowing the progress of humans from trans-human stage to the later post human stage.

One aspect of societal change in the past four decades is the concept of reproduction and the use of biotechnology.  Technology and science has been advancing at a fast ate that has found the society trailing behind in keeping pace with some of the complexities that this advancement bring forth. In this case the aspect of change in the society in the recent decades is the one of paid progression of human reproductive techniques leading to introduction of cloning techniques. The aspect of cloning has made many societies, individuals and even governments to adopt new views, attitudes and perceptions of human life

Changes in the Society

The main concern with the society on effects of biotechnology is the human cloning research. Human cloning is a new science which was introduced in early seventies. First cloned gene took place in 1972 and by 1980 a cell was used in the production of human inferon which I a protein that is produced by cells through a reaction process against a virus. This signaled the beginning of human cloning as it was the first time that a non human cell was used to produce a human cell. Many societies view human cloning as procreation of brand new life and an extra duplication of human genes. Since then research has been advancing towards human cloning at an alarming a rate and this has forced societies to talk out in rejection of the idea on the basis of moral and ethical considerations and the fact that the society is not ready for further advancement hence the research need further study to determine on the scale of its outcomes when fully implemented by the human society. (Kubota and Yang, 997).

The technology associated with cloning has affected many societies across the world in various ways. For instance many societies have found themselves engulfed by the commercial debates regarding the ethical issues surrounding the technology of cloning. Many societies have been deeply griped by those debates because they are well funded and form very sensitive and important issues to most individuals around the world. These debate has changed societies across the world for the past decades because cloning has been debated to have both positive as well as negative effects on the world hence it has attracted the attention of the society which belie that it should be debated carefully before it is continued to prevent its bad an d drastic effects on the world as a whole. Many societies have rejected the process major on ethical, moral and religious grounds and many governments have en listening to the concerns of these societies.

Secondly cloning has also changed or has had a major effect on many individuals across the world and in the various societies as these issues has bothered them especially concerning the fact that cloning is now possible rather than just a speculation as it used to be in the distant past. This main reason why cloning has been a bother to many individual in the society is that the new technology of cloning if accepted to be used will affect every in the society and not only those who introduced or used it thus the change in societal treatment of the issues. Therefore; considering the fact that the technology will affect the entire world every individual has to make up minds regarding their personal opinions on the sensitive issue (Hill et al, 1780).

In addition to that cloning has also affected the society inform of the creation of imbalances amongst several governments across the world.  Many governments have been got in between making decisions regarding the heated arguments by the public and law implementers on whether to steps that should be taken to prevent human cloning research or to make it a government funded readers. Also issues gets complicated as society is against both types of cloning i.e. animal and human while the government on the other side is only concerned with the human cloning . This has concerned these governments has society demands that if the government should not stop only human cloning but should stop both human and animal cloning research.

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The society has changed the society as whole as government have responded to peoples debates on the issues and have respected it by withdrawing funding of the controversial research hence increasing the problems that scientist involved especially the issue of  sourcing funds outside the government resources. This has made the goals of human cloning even more difficult. Societies have joint hands in rejecting the technology hence diverse societies and individuals have been pulled tighter by the common values of stopping cloning. This issue has changed the society in an immense way especially when one considers the fact that modem society appear to have a broken or damage moral compass. As many issues face no opposition from the society. In contrary the issue of human cloning has drawn alliances from societies and countries that are often odd s with one other and speak one voice against the research (Shiga, and Nagai, 530). The society has undergone a transformation from a society that is fond of funding research even those mundane of science in name of achieving the greatest based on scientific research into a society that is afraid of its own achievements and become more concerned on losing what defines humanity in the society.

Causes of Cloning Biotechnology

Individuals engaged into cloning biotechnology due to therapeutic means. This is the production of human embryos for use in the research. The objective of this practice was not to come up with cloned human beings, other than harvesting stem cells that have the capability of being used for the study of human development and the treatment of diseases. To biomedical researchers, stem cells are far much significant as they can be used in the generation of virtually any type of specialized cell in the body. The extraction of stem cells is from the egg after its five day division. At one time, scientists thought the idea of using stem cells in replacing cells in the process of treating diseases like heart diseases. The human embryo cloning in Massachusetts was done with the target of advancing therapeutic researches,(Ferber, 44).

The change was also initiated with the aim of generating animals that have similar nuclear DNA as other current or previously existing animals. For instance, Dolly was created in a process by the name somatic nuclear. The egg that is reconstructed contains the DNA from a donor cell, which then has to be treated with either electronic current or chemicals for the stimulation of cell division. The generated Dolly or any other plant or animals, is not truly identical clone of the donor animal. The Dolly's success was much remarkably since it showed that genetic materials for a specialized adult cell as like for instance, an udder cell programmed so that it expresses only these genes that are needed by udder cells, has the capability of being reprogrammed for the generation of an entire new organism. For the peoples it is much easier. Many individuals were not just intending to have kids, but the desire of having kids of their similar genes.

The change was initiated as a mean of blessing couples which tent to the infertile. The infertile that occur cloning have higher chances of having children of their own.  Through the practice of cloning Bio-technology, infertile women will be having their own babies through the implantation of the cloned babies into there bodies. This technology in one way or the other eliminates the mental and physical pains throughout the couples that are infertile.

Another objective of that led to the cloning biotechnology, is to assist in the improvement of the food crop quality. During this process, the required genes have higher chances of being cloned into the plant of the inferior. This practice is aimed improving tests and nutritional values, or in one way or the other issue resistance to a particular type disease. In addition, the technology as well can be used as a means of increasing the yield of different crops for the purpose of increasing of improving food supply. As a result, cloning could their fore in one way or the other solve the problem the food shortages that are being experienced world wide, as an effect, eliminating or minimizing possible starvation, (Ronald, 59).

Another cause of biotechnology was DNA finger printing. This tool has been of great use in different applications of human health care research as well as in justice systems. This tool is used to diagnose disorders that are inherited in both newborn babies and parental in hospitals all round the world. Such like disorders might include hemophilia, sickle cell anemia. When such disorders are detected early enough the medical staff will have more time the patients and families for proper medication for the baby. In other programs, genetic councilors apply DNA fingerprint data to assist prospective parents get to know the risks of having the affected kid. The fingerprint of DNA information might be applied in coming up with cures for the inherited disorders other circumstances, DNA fingerprints was to apply in linking suspects to biological evidence , for example the semen stains, as well as blood, hair among other things, which might be found at the place of crime, hence was to be applied in solving crimes. It was also supposed to be used in the court of law in the establishment of paternity in custody and the litigation of child support. This technology was started in the US armed service to assist in the causality identification, or even during looking for a missing person, (Raunakms par 15). 

Last but not least, this practice is used in serving the endangered animals. Cloning Biotechnology which could serve, the eye s was neighboring.  Reproductive cloning in addition could be in a position of helping conserve animals that were much difficult to breed.

Relevance of Cloning- Bio Technology to the Understanding of the World

For many years back, individuals used to produce food and drinks without understanding the microbial process that were involved. It was till the understanding of the biosynthetic pathways and mechanisms involved in the regulatory control used by micro-organisms for the manufacture of many metabolites that has increased the reader's knowledge so biochemistry of industrially important organisms. Cloning biotechnology knowledge to the reader will help him or her identify that the world he lives in is changing day in day out.  By the use of such knowledge, he can understand the world better and make it improve its production hence ease his or her life. This is because, with this knowledge, the reader can know a variety of microorganisms in the world he is leaving that can be employed as tools useful products. He is too understood that the world contains raw materials that can be converted to useful finished new goods through ordinary chemicals or biological means.

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