Why does the History of Empire Matter?
An empire was bound to subsist whenever a nation exercised long-standing ascendancy over 1 or an additional exterior nation. An empire in addition subsisted if 1 tribe exercised long-standing ascendancy or domination over 1 or more exterior tribe. The outcome of the ascendancy was that the empire managed to resolute several major parameters that were part and parcel of its survival. They included political, economic and cultural parameters.
There are two main differences between an empire and other types of political organizations. One is the capability of the empire to resolute what takes place. The second difference is the outcomes in the societies under its jurisdiction. Leaders of an empire accrued several direct and indirect benefits which included gain of entry to vital resources. Furthermore, they (the leaders) controlled the military premeditated territory due to the imperial preparations.
Originally, empires sprung subsequent to the founding of civilizations. They were founded alongside slavery. The two (slavery and empire) were established in the similar historical era, and also for identical reasons. The initial forms of empires were without elementary affairs. In the early years, leaders of an empire were not contented to witness their increasing good luck credited to paltry invasion and the attainment of slave labor. It took several years for the earliest empires to grow into composite civilizations.
Empires such as the Roman and even Chinese took hundreds of years in order to develop. These empires subsisted in various parts of the globe. Furthermore, the two empires overlapped in time. As compared to the earliest forms of empires, these empires were more advanced. They are presently, generally refereed to as the slave empires.
Subsequent to the formation of the Roman and Chinese empires, a number of other forms of empires were created including the mercantile empire. A perfect living example of this kind of empire is the Vatican Empire. This empire attained its peak in the era in-between 12th to 14th centuries. On the other hand, the Spanish mercantile empire was the most distant Empire. It turned out to be the globe's supreme authority in the period in-between late 15th century to late 17th century. Other forms of mercantile empires included the British and French empires. The struggles of these Empires dominated in the eighteenth century. Primarily, these struggles were efforts to imitate the Spanish Empires. These empires were pioneered in civilizations that had earlier on expanded capitalism (Laxer, 2006).
As much as feudalism is concerned, the nobles amassed a section of the farm produce of the serf on their farmlands. Furthermore, the serfs worked from sun up to sun down for the nobles/aristocrats. Capitalism and Feudalism empires were created with the sole purpose of raking profits from overseas invasion. Furthermore, bankers and investors who were based in these empires saved a lot of money. The saved money was subsequently sent to the Spanish missions and to other parts of the world so as to purchase both gold and silver.
The era between the nineteenth and twentieth century is generally referred to as the age of imperialism. The age of imperialism was characterized by an enormous crusade by European superpowers such as Britain and France to capture those countries of Africa that had not yet been captured. Additionally, it was characterized by the crusade of these superpowers to capture some parts of the Asian Continent.
The history of empire matters since it provides an understanding on the manner in which the various forms of empires such as the Roman, Chinese, Mercantile and Feudalism came into existence. Two, it describes the parts of the globe in which these empires were established. For instance, the Chinese empire was established in China while the Spanish empire was set up in Spain. Last, it provides the reasons as to why the various forms of empires were established and the styles of leadership (Laxer, 2006).
Why does the History of Capitalism Matter?
The term capitalism refers to a fiscal doctrine. In capitalism, prosperity and also the techniques of creating prosperity are privately owned and also managed. There are several other characteristics of capitalism. First, all the factors of production are owned and ran by either private individuals or even firms with the sole purpose of raking profits. These factors of production consist of land, labor and capital. Second, the both the production and pricing of goods are resolute by private verdicts. Third, every individual owns his/her labor. This means that the individual can vend or sell the use of the labor. Fourth, investors and also owners accrued earnings from ventures they managed. Last, private rights are safeguarded by the rule of law.
The era in between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries witnessed the escalated institutionalization of capitalistic fiscal practices. This escalation was particularly rampant in England. Several countries of the word during this era also witnessed this institutionalization but to a smaller extent. The first forms of merchant capitalism thrived in the middle Ages.
Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, capitalism offered the key techniques of industrialization across the globe. Several types of capitalistic systems exist. First, as far as the capitalist mixed economy is concerned, the state interferes in the market activity. Additionally, it (the state) offers various services. Second, in laissez-faire, the function of the state in the market is negligible. Third, as much as anarcho-capitalism is concerned, the state is surpassed by the market. It (the state) is also superseded by private enterprises.
The term capitalism was at first used in the year 1854. It was used by William Makepeace Thackeray who was an author. Two, in the year eighteen hundred and fifty four (1854), it was given the second meaning by Proudhon. He used it to signify the owners of capital. Three, both Marx and Engels used it to signify the capitalist method of producing goods.
Last, in Das Kapital, it was used to signify a private owner of one of the factors of production (capital).
This term (Capitalism) was used initially to signify the production system in the year nineteen hundred and two (1902). It was used by Sombart Werner who was also an author. There are several other terms that symbolizes this term (capitalist). These terms include economic liberalism and private enterprise. Others include market capitalism and laissez-faire.
A capitalist society ought not to have origins of self-maintenance. This is because, if it happens to possess these origins/sources, it shall turn out to be autonomous. This is in-accordance with the Marxist analysis. This analysis further indicated that the society ought to be obliged to vend its labor so as to be able to continue to exist (Fulcher, 2004).
The history of capitalism does matter since it provides an understanding of capitalism and its characteristics. Two, it provides the exact dates and place (s) in which capitalism was initially practiced. Three, it provides the various forms of capitalism such as anarcho-capitalism and laissez-faire, and the various terms that signify the term (the term capital) such as economic liberalism and private enterprise. Last, it provides an understanding of the characteristics of a capitalist society (Fulcher, 2004).