The essay below discusses the fast spread of HIV/AIDS as reflected in the two research articles. With regard to the prevailing circumstances in today’s society, the essay has tried to explain the main causes behind the fast spread of the disease. The two research articles include The Fiscal Dimension of HIV/AIDS in Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland and Uganda and a research article authored by Catherine Campbell, entitled  “Let them die”: Why HIV/AIDS prevention programs fail, Indiana University Press; 1 Edition (September 1 2003).    .

Hiv/ Aids Spread and Awareness

The two research articles have had their data given close attention. This is a research aimed at eroding the people’s irrational patterns of thinking as a way of controlling the first spread of this deadly disease. It talks about a well known topic that is HIV/AIDS fast spread in the community. The research has paid close attention to factors such as; the theories and myths behind the first spread of HIV and AIDS.  The research carried out in an attempt to control its first spread and at the same time sensitize human beings on the importance of knowing their status (Lule 2011). It has paid respect and borrowed a lot from the studies learnt in nursing including topics such as; sociological perspectives, psychological perspectives and biological.

As it appears in Catherine Campbell’s research, HIV/AIDS has a fast spread especially in urban areas. The research findings reveal shocking news that by the end of the year 2007, that marked an approximate number of 33.2 million people who were living with HIV/AIDS. This analysis is enough to show the fast rate of spread of the disease in the entire world. The two research studies reveal that HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa and the whole world. It is a documented fact that women are holding more than fifty percent of the total population that dies annually with infections of this deadly disease. To back up the research studies from the school’s database, I picked some News stories from the web. The news stories from the web reveal the careless behavior amongst the youth of this generation.  University young men are engaging in irresponsible sexual behavior with their female lecturers. The news stories from websites, media houses and blogs all over the internet justify the fast spread of HIV/AIDS. According to the news articles, young University ladies from Universities all over the world too have not been left behind. They reflect the same behavior of consensual sexual intercourse with male counterparts who are their fathers’ age mates. With regard to this, it is inevitable to have the fast spread of HIV/AIDS in the community today.

Considering the role that nurses play in society, the two articles by Catherine Campbell and Elizabeth Lule, are extremely relevant to their career. Nurses should diagnose the members of the society with any disease regardless of their age, political affiliation or gender. It is certainly essential when nurses are fully aware of the fast spread of this deadly disease (Campbell 2003). When nurses are aware of the spread of this disease, they will sensitize the people of the community of the need to take ultimate care of themselves. Also, the revelation that most people especially in a rural area are naive and ignorant when it comes to the spread of this killer disease enhances a chance for nurses to work hard to educate the people. Possible control measures should be taught to people in rural areas. The illiterate people too should not be left behind. To change the situations revealed by the two research articles, nurses are particularly vital components in the society, not to mention the extensive care they should give to the infected people.


As a nursing student, I have learnt several theories in class, and I believe they are practical in the society. They include biological theories, social cultural theories and psychological theories. In the psychological perspective, the theories learnt deal a lot with the study of relationships. It is relevant to understand social relationships between various individual adults. As a nursing student, it is essential to understand an adult’s psychological background. For example, a psychological school of thought by Sigmud Freud argues that a person’s childhood has a lot to do with his behavior and personality at the adult stage. Freud divides human development into stages that include Oral stage, anal stage, and latency stage, phallic and adult stages. Adults who known to be selfish and want their needs gratified at any time are those that did not fully develop from their oral stage. At the family level, cases of sexuality amongst adults are also addressed. A clear example is a case of incest. He argues that, during development, children develop some sexual attraction to parents of the opposite sex. This is term as Oedipus complex for boys and Electra complex for girls. Such irresponsible activities are usually traced back to under development from this stage ( Snooks 2009). Freud also associates states of consciousness with an individual’s past events. This approach is extremely crucial for counselors since it helps nurses to understand psychological shortcomings of patients. Some patients have a lot more harm in their mind with regard to their feelings. This is where the knowledge of psychological theories comes in for nurses.

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In nursing classes, social cultural theories have also been taught. A radical sociologist whose total contribution to the study of society cannot be ignored is Karl Max. The Marxist approach to the structure of the society is critical and relevant in the field of nursing. Karl max argued that the society in all its major arenas be it in church, politics or economic wise, is formed by two key group; the rich, who own resources and means of production and the poor. The first group is the rich, who own the means of production of goods and services in the society. The second group involves the poor who have nothing to offer but their labor. The second group of adults suffers exploitation by those who own the means of production. Interactions with adults reveal the existence of inferiority complex in them, especially those from poor background.

In social context, adults give undue respect to people from higher social strata than them. Due to this the rich take advantage of this scenario. Those raised in stable families continue being rich, as a result of taking advantage of the undue respect to them by other members of the society. They suffer financially and physically. In fact, they form the largest population of individuals who die of diseases that can be treated easily. This theory is as relevant in the field of nursing as it helps nurses understand differences in social class

Biological theories taught in nursing are theories pertaining to inheritance of genes, and genetic makeup of individuals (Salkind 2004). The theories show some resemblance of different individuals in terms of physical looks and mental ability. With this understanding, nurses in their career are able to analyze activities such as blindness and other forms of inherited disabilities. This biological theory is so practical in the society today. Adults in the church do not seem to conform to proponents of this ideology. They believe traits are not inherited. In fact, Christianity has it that we were all created in God’s image. Adults emphasize the fact that every person has unique characteristics.  This emphasis is placed by adults in an attempt to control irrational justifications people make on their bad behavior. Some people may blame their high tempers on the parents they inherited the genes.


Adults at home are highly vigilant in an attempt to raise responsible citizens and youths who are loyal to their country. This has however, not been so easy. It has taken campaigns role models, and religion to mould this young generation. In the context of hospitals, a lot has been observed being done to fight social evil such as corruption, immorality and generally unscrupulous behavior amongst adults in the society. Although certain prevailing circumstances and issues have been coming up in the recent past, a lot has unquestionably been done to ensure harmony and tranquility in the society. Issues such as the Myths that adults pass from generation to generation by word of mouth has minimized as the levels of literacy increases. When these myths reduce in the society, adults and other society members are likely not to fall for immorality.

Adults in educational institutions do not take care of themselves. They are easily influenced by their age mates in campus so that they resort to activities such as criminal activities, drug abuse among many other such activities that cause formlessness in the society. Those who give in to habits such as drug abuse regret for the rest of their lives. Again the work load of their nurses increases with an increasing sense of irresponsibility among adults.

In the church setting, old adults have ultimate importance in molding the future leaders. They raise the people’s spirituality and develop their moral values. This effect to reduced rates of Immorality and therefore, a situation of stability and peace results in the society. A number of the adult population in the church too has been found to be nothing but irresponsible pretenders. They have created an unfavorable image of the church, and this has challenged the efforts of the good-willed adults to develop a standardized society. To the field of nursing, it has adverse effects. It makes the working conditions harder and harder every day. The level of independence of adults in the society today is so poor. They have irrational thinking patterns. As a result of these patterns, some adults must wait most of the things they do be approved by a peer group they belong. They suffer poverty and are not able to even manage their issues. These adults rely on opinions from friends and they can be so misleading. Peer pressure has devastating effects on adult life. It makes individuals behave so irresponsibly.

Another clear observation is the conduct of adults in day care centers. Some adults do not to respect nurses. Those from higher social classes sometimes despise nurses’ ability. They do so by judging them by the clothes they wear the mobile phones they use or other personal effects. From a psychological point of view, adults in the society in most cases suffer self identity loss. They sometimes are not even sure of what they want in this life. In fact, they only wear masks depending on the company they are with at that given moment. This results to a serious phenomenon of identity crisis. Adults should know their limits, and in this case, they will never have to suffer emotional stress.


In conclusion, it is so evident that a society without nurses is an environment not conducive to live. Adults should try their level best to make their lifestyles with other societal members to make the society a good place to live. It should be emphasized to society members that nurses be respected for their outstanding job to ensure the society are well in all its aspects. Perhaps unique ways of motivations should be considered by the government to ensure the nurses are awarded for their superb job.

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