Computer systems are basically interconnection between several computers through a server or a central point. Such computer operates independently but can easily communicate with the other computers. For a complete set of computer system, there should be software that enables the operation the run easily. The effects of computer systems have resulted in job loses and creation of new ones but the main achievement is the increased operational speed and eased communication and interconnection between different destinations globally without necessarily travelling. The scenario created by the computer development is quite beneficial especially in the field of science and other sectors that require a lot of precision and speed in their operations.
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)
1. Computers will soon be able to monitor the bodily functions of people without requiring their awareness or necessarily seeking their permission.
The technological advancement in the computer world has brought about what has come to be known as the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). This is a concept that was researched for the first time more than two and half decades ago. The main aim of this field was the establishment of the relationship between the human beings and the computers in relation to the improvement of the technological designs. It is however worth to note that the said relationship has been tampered with so much based on the numerous changes in the socio-technical scenery. As a result of this, the people in this field are left in a fix as to the direction this field is taking (Sellen et al, 2006).
Computer system are now considered as interfering with the peoples' lives and are allover in the world surrounding the human beings. Computers are being used to monitor the human behaviors in several places, there are areas where they are used to guide people and in other places they intimidate as well as give support to people in their daily routines. In regard to this, it is evident that computers will indeed be able to keep an eye on the bodily functions of the populace with or without their consent and this process has already started. Based on the trend that the computer world has taken and the advancements in the technological world, it is evident that this will soon be realized and the computer systems will be able to monitor most of the bodily functions of people.
A close look into the transformations in terms of the interaction of human beings with computers will give a clear picture that this is bound to happen soon if it has not been realized in some of the sectors where it seems to be a major issue. There are basically five transformations and each of them gives a different course in terms of the interactions that human beings are having with the computers. They tackle the manner in which human beings coexist with the computers, the interactions, the problems and the manner in which the solutions are pursued (Sellen et al, 2006).
End of the interface stability is the first transformation and this deals with the fact that it has become difficult to define computers nowadays in terms of one interface but pretty a number of interfaces or in some case none. A good illustration of this is the manner in which some of the computers infringe into the personal lives of people. There are situations where people carry, wear or even have computers implanted in them. Other computer forms are varnishing into the prosperity and intricacy of the people's environment. Computers are increasing entrenched in almost all the objects in people's lives; the clothing, home applicants, books, cars, children's toys and fixtures just to mention a few. In the environment, their use has increased in places such as the shopping malls, homes, offices, garages and even in airports. In such circumstances it is difficult to tell where the interface is based on the fact that if it were there, it would have been in terms of what the user is allowed to do with the system (Sellen et al, 2006).
The second transformation is based on the development of what is referred to as the techno-dependency. The manner in which human beings live and use technology has resulted in people becoming more reliant to it. Technological infrastructure has become a major necessity in the lives of many and particularly the computational dependence has become more intricate, burdened with extra holdup points, and susceptible to increased attack. The selected activities such as application in different work places rather than the routine practices have increased the dependency of people to computers and almost in all sectors their use is paramount accomplishment of the different objectives.
Growth in hyper connectivity is the third transformation and this is based on the kind of communication that people are using. It would be expected that devices such as computers would lead to improved efficiency as well as saving time in terms of communication. However, this is not the case; instead hyper connectivity has brought more people to be in touch and in increased ways in the global context (Sellen et al, 2006).
The forth transformation is based on the hyper connectivity and the access of many people's way of living, actions and other personal information. The computer networks have now enabled ways of monitoring people's activities without their consent and knowledge and this reflects on how such systems can be used to infringe into the personal lives of such people. There are instances where computers are used to record conversations, movements and other actions of people and the information transmitted to other departments without the knowledge of the people involved. These are the kind of 'digital footprints' that will lead to the major concern in the question of computer interference in the people's lives (Sellen et al, 2006).
The final transformation is the explosion of the new digital tools into the people's lives. This has enabled them to express themselves in more advanced ways, work, and even play. Unlike in the past where computer use was limited to automation as well as mechanization of regular aspects in obtaining solutions, today computers have become instruments of creativity in both recreational as well as more solemn pursuits.
It is this kind of developments that creates the notion that human life will continue to be influenced by the computer systems. The aspects of human activities being controlled by these devices is obvious and based on the fact that the technological advancement are increasing each day, the question of computers monitoring the bodily functions of people without their awareness or necessarily seeking their permission is indeed a possibility and this is bound to happen (Sellen et al, 2006).
The Next Generation of the Computers after the PC
2. An increasingly complex set of computing devices will pervade our homes.
Growth in technology has resulted in both negative and positive developments in the society. Computers have aided in transforming the world into a new era where computers are used to recognize objects and translate writings to different languages. Computers are able to deal with the most challenging question especially in mathematics and other related problems. In control engineering, computers are used to detect and give information on complex industrial setting replacing the manual activities that used to be time consuming and difficult to operate with tight precision margin (Bertelle, 2009).
Computers development has evolved from a complex mode to a much simpler mode that at least a handful of operators are capable to understand. The PC computers are the most common computers with many users trying to learn the features it entails. Most users actually don't understand the operation of these computer but they have been stressed by the complexity in the settings that allows them to operate some features like games and other forms of entertainment. Commonly computer software are developed to suite some specific job. The operators operate them without a problem because of the format. Computer games are rarely formatted to suite specific computers instead, they dependant on software improvement in one central point (Bertelle, 2009).
The next generation of the computers after the PC could be the solution to the prevailing challenge (Bertelle, 2009). But the problem is far from fading away, most of the actions on the computers are being managed by the users rather that the being run by the computer itself. The complexities have made as part of the users computer knowledge, because they have decided to tolerate and presume the prevailing situation. Contrary in the power appliances, the software have addressed the problem properly, it can be operated by anyone since almost aspect if is automatic to the response.
Probably the unanswered question is the reason why switching from the complex mode to a simpler mode has never been accomplished? The main reason is that the computers are made for general purpose and not specific object like a vehicle. Computers do not depend on the hardware but depend entirely on the software. Users are given several option of operating the computer; the software available may be important only in the office work but not operational while at home. Users are given options to load their own software to according to the purpose of the software. More so options are given to the users to add their own software. The appliances in the computers are unstable since some of them become obsolete while others changes in the format. Application of these new devices might not have impact on the problem being solved since it just replaces the old appliance but not improving it (Bertelle, 2009).
Appliances available within the computer are classified into three parts which includes first class; these are the devices designed and fixed by the manufacturer. They do what the designer projected to only. They are actually appliances that can't be tampered with. Examples includes internet, software for radio among others. The second class appliances are mainly fixed by the services providers. The appliances are more accommodative to operate with, it contain features that can be changed over and again. The specifications are purely that from the service provider. The third class appliances are the solution to the problem encountered in the first and second class appliances. The item is quite easy for the user to deal with any time (Bertelle, 2009).
While trying to cope with complexity in the computers, it is important to realize the importance of the heterogeneity in the computer system and try to solve it.
IT and Labour Markets
3. New technologies will continue to shift the balance of labour between people and machines in ways that will change our skills, strengthening some and atrophying others.
Basically information technology is currently the major economic driving force. Its presence is widely felt world wide. The impact the new technology employment has been both negative and positive. People who are the inventors and those adopting the technology are much far benefiting from the technology while the ones still sticking to the old system are being paced away by the system. The learned class is set to benefit a lot from the new technology since most of them are likely to learn or use the computer in their daily activities. The age bracket of the workers likely to use the computers is likely to be between 25 and 45 years (Castells, 2009)
The classifications of computers have different effects on the labor markets. Some computers are likely to take away jobs while others employ new work force. many types of computers are not necessarily prompted with a sophisticated labor force. For example operating a complex machine like a car doesn't mean having a lot skill to know. But in some cases like the scientific computers, the language used by the computers can't be understood my most people unless they have learned science. Similarly the uses of computers by the Engineers in the manufacturing sectors have catalyzed development of the control system within the industry. These systems are computerized and programmed in a language only understood by the Engineers. Therefore employment may be created for engineers but may terminate the services of a manual worker (Castells, 2009).
Generally there has been an outcry that a new technology and development of new machines could increases unemployment since the development of the first machines. The effect of new technology was felt in the early 1960s and the late 1950s (Castells, 2009). The rate of unemployment was high and due to availability of the new technology, many were convinced that the unemployment was fuelled by the introduction of the new machines. The fears were never offer even after employment rate picked up instead; workers were worried about termination of their work (Castells, 2009)
Even though technology affected many industries in adverse proportion, the technology advocates are convinced that the problem was a general problem cutting through several sectors and not the new technology alone. Effects of unemployment are severer indeed but when looked closely, the percentage contributed by the new technology may not be that adverse as it may look physically. The blame is mostly related to the prevailing business environment because any time the business environment is stable, employment level rise. For example in 1990s, employment rate was the highest compared the employment rate the previous three decades though the information technology revolution started in late 1980s (Castells, 2009)
By 1990s, the demand for the information technology professionals was at the high since the growth of the sector faster than development of the human resource. The Engineers, computer scientists, and programmers were the ones responsible for the fast development of the information technology. They development and maintained the operations in the IT industry that includes computer software and hardware (Castells, 2009).
In the US the workforce in IT was acutely on demand but the number of graduates could merge the demand till the foreign labor was employed to cut down the labor deficit. The employment rate for the IT industry was high in the late 1990s and in the early 2000s but the trend was set to stabilize as more IT professionals entered the market. The effect of the IT on labor is not a severe one. For example in the US, the labor force biased to IT is less than two percent (Castells, 2009)
The labor market has not been have much by the information technology, instead more white collar jobs were created to replace some manual jobs without necessarily sacking anyone. More workers received education on the use of computers therefore more computers were required in the organizations. Although the IT brought many changes including creation of jobs and changing way operations at work place, the discriminative employment of the skilled labor and phasing out the unskilled labor has been a major concern to many labor organizations (Castells, 2009)
The entry of IT in the employment sector has brought out many uncertainties in the labor market including the job stability, wages and the security of employment. All these factors remain unclear and it has lead to increase the debate on its effects. The benefit of IT in the labor market has been a lot but the disadvantage can't be can't be neglected also (Castells, 2009).
The Change in Technology Have Changed the Normal Traditions of the Society
4. Digital footprints are expanding in ways that we understand and are visible but also in ways that we don't comprehend or see.
The digital technology has grown to be the world most felt change. It ranges from the global effect to personal effects. The use of the information technology has changed the lifestyles of many people positively and negatively. Basically digital technology has got its unique language where combined signs and written language is the mode of communication. The effects of these technologies are yet to be established as it changes frequently.
The introduction of the new technology has been an exploration without a definite destination. Certain phenomena such as multitasking are evident through the digital technology. Devices such as computers and iphones provide for multitasking while operating with it. The effects are evident on the change of behaviour among the users (Beardon, 2004).
The communication globally has moved from the most tedious mode to a simpler one thanks to revolution in information technology. Development of industries benefited from the new technology; automation of these industries have reviewed some of the work done by the human labour. The importance of these machines is the introduction of machines like the robots that instead took some of the risk tasks done by the human beings. The computer aide storage facilities changed the focus on Hard copies to soft copies (Beardon, 2004)
The radical changes on the way people act, behave or socialize with others brought by the change in technology have changed the normal traditions of the society. Unlike the days when learning was strictly writing and reading evolution in technology has effectively changed the way of learning and socialising. Socialising on the internet has shown some significant impact on people's behaviour. Postings on the internet somewhat change the emotional behaviour of many users. For example when someone does not get contended with what transpired on their daily duties, they just visit the social network and post the discontents. Friends will probably give their views and words of consolation (Beardon, 2004).
The changes in the reading mode have completely brought revolution on the traditional behaviour. Most of the books are found on the internet therefore some people prefer reading at the dispensation of the rooms. The library building has been less essential to many students compared to past when only books to read were found there. Students reading literature materials are on decline as the focus shift to internet stuff.
Though it looks normal, the effects of the revolution have greatly changed the outfit of many. Several changes in the functioning the brain might not have been seen by many. Scientist pose that continuous interaction with digital technologies may change the way one think (Beardon, 2004). They argue that the effect might be severe to extend that a person might not be able to interact or socialize with people normally. The effect has been called digital natives. The effect of the disease is on all the users of the internet who use it most of their time. The brains adversely affected rarely interpret verbal images and socialisation problem (Beardon, 2004). For the young generation, using the internet will engage their visual power therefore allowing them to withstand mass flow of information in the on internet.
Generally the effects of internet on people's behaviour are more of positive but also dependant on personal behaviour. Changes on the traditions are almost impossible to reverse but adapting it in a positive way might be beneficial to the society. It is important to realize that excessive use of internet affect the operation of the brain.
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