The aspect of cross-cultural communication has become a major consideration for expanding business environments, due to the inclusion of diverse geographical locations and cultures. These aspects introduce communication challenges and, thus, require managers to adopt relevant strategies to eliminate various communication barriers. First, it is important for managers to promote learning about other cultures, especially concerning their language and meanings. This is a vital consideration for managers to comprehend appropriate greetings, words and physical contact in the context of a particular culture (Mead & Andrews, 2009). For example, while people in the US view a peck on the cheek as an inappropriate way of greeting a business associate, in Paris, it is a common form of greeting in the business environment. Managers engaged in cross-cultural communication should exhibit patience to avoid misinterpretation of other people’s behaviors and reactions. Manager should consider special needs of different team members that are likely to arise due to different traditions and norms.

Oil refinery encompasses numerous stages that are crucial concerning the delivery of processed hydrocarbon to the consumer. Upstream activities entail the exploration and drilling of raw materials. This is the first stage in all the upstream activities. After the hydrocarbon reaches the surface, concerned parties’ route it to a central facility, where the separation of oil, gas and water occurs. This ensures that the oil is free of dissolved gas and that the gas is stable and free of unwanted compounds, such as carbon dioxide. Afterwards, the transmission of the intermediate product to the refinery for further processing begins.

 Downstream activities entail the work done at facilities where the crude oil and gas undergo refining before distribution and marketing. This includes tasks, such as distillation, cracking, reforming, and other activities that help to eliminate impurities and ensure an acceptable final product. The other aspect of downstream activities is packaging and shipment to the final user.

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Definition of the Value and the Attitude

A value refers to the importance attached to a good or service. A pharmaceutical company that educates potential customers on the impact of high cholesterol adds value to cholesterol-reducing drugs. An attitude refers to the way that an individual expresses views based on beliefs and values. Consumers are likely to believe in the effectiveness of the cholesterol-reducing drugs due to company’s undertakings. The difference between attitude and values is that attitudes are functional aspects that influence behavior, while values are unique components of an individual’s upbringing, education and culture.

Doing business in Saudi Arabia introduces numerous challenges for a US manager and, thus, knowledge concerning the Saudi Arabian culture, norms and traditions is important. US manager should have an understanding of the different communication styles used in Riyadh, which are quite indirect and of high context. This entails aspects, such as the use of body language and silence, as means of communication. An understanding of Islamic values and rules is essential, since Islam is a core component of the Saudi Arabian culture. The Sharia law describes different approaches concerning interactions within a family, the community and business associates. While in the US people create a distinction between the business and personal relationships, such a distinction is indistinct in Riyadh. People in Saudi Arabia prefer establishing personal relationships and then advancing them into business relationships (Moran et al, 2011). Thus, US manger should consider treating friend requests with importance, as ignoring such requests amounts to rudeness.

Another important consideration is the attitude towards time.  While in the US punctuality is a key aspect in business meetings, people in Saudi Arabia have a more flexible attitude towards time and their business meetings are not as structured as in the US. Furthermore, US manager should acknowledge the importance Muslims attach to prayers and, thus, avoid scheduling meetings during prayer times. 

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