i) Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid


These chemicals can react to form dangerous or toxic gas called chlorine.

Hazardous effects

They are very dangerous because they can cause a lot of harm if they come into contact with the human body (Ralf, E. et al., 2009). They can damage the body, eyes, skin, respiratory systems and the small intestines. This results from their corrosive effects.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

  1. Socks
  2. Fully enclosed shoes
  3. Chemical resistant gloves

Best root for evacuation

Because of the dangers associated with these chemicals, it is essential to be cautious enough to appropriately evacuate the victims. This can be done by carrying out the possible first aids then rushing the victim to the hospital. At the same time, the factories should be well constructed and protected. There should be fire extinguishing equipments to help stop fires in case of any possible explosion. When doing this, wind direction must be considered not to spread the harm.

Potential collateral damage

These chemicals have the following collateral damages:

  1. Causing respiratory diseases to the human beings
  2. Polluting land that would otherwise be used for agricultural activities
  3. Killing animals

The best way to prevent recurrence

These disasters can be easily prevented if appropriate steps are taken to address the situation especially at the pre-disaster levels.

  1. There should be disaster preparedness at all the time.
  2. The department of emergency should ensure that all the necessary equipments are availed to help in eradicating any explosions experienced.

Chemicals involved

  1. Propane

Potential hazardous effects

The reactions of these gases are quite dangerous (Woodward, R. B. and Hoffmann, R., 2005).   It can result into the following hazards:

  1. Explosion
  2. Irritation
  3. Scorching effects
  4. Cancer

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

  1. Lab coats
  2. Face shields
  3. Chemical resistant gloves

Evacuation route

It is important to locate the plant in a safe place that will not expose people to the dangers of these chemicals. In case of attack, offer the necessary first aid and rush the victim to the hospital. When carrying out this exercise, a person must consider that the wind direction.

Potential collateral damage

These chemicals are not only dangerous to the users. Their hazards can reach others in the following way:

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  1. Can cause fires
  2. Can cause explosions
  3. Can harm animals
  4. Can harm plants
  5. Can cause diseases like lung cancer

Preventing recurrence

The break out of such catastrophes can be prevented by the following ways:

  1. Using the recommended Personal Emergency Equipments like gloves, mask, aprons and fully enclosed shoes (Krost, B., 2001). 
  2. Providing timely fire extinguishing services
  3. Proper planning and preparation for emergencies.
  4. Locating factories far away from human population

Chemicals involved

  1. Uranium

Potential hazardous effects

Having radioactive elements in these chemicals make them have the following cause the following dangers to the people:

  1. Cancer
  2. Brain damage
  3. Mutations
  4. Allergies
  5. Hormonal disruptions
  6. Birth defects
  7. Miscarriages
  8. Induced genetic damage
  9. Fatal death

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

  1. Apron
  2. Fully enclosed shoes
  3. Safety glasses
  4. Face shields

Evacuation route

In order to help tackle the hazards of these chemicals, the following actions should be taken:

  1. Observing the PEE regulations and strictly adhering to them.
  2. Locating mines away from human residence
  3. Carrying out Environmental Impact Assessment to ascertain the level of hazards in case the factory is located in an area
  4. Cleaning the contaminated areas and rehabilitating them.

Potential collateral damages

These chemicals are extremely dangerous. They can cause the following collateral damages:

  1. Permanent poisoning of land and drinking water next to the mines
  2. The users of such waters can be greatly affected. They will die of reproductive cancer, leukemia.
  3. It can result into the death of livestock consuming water from the contaminated sources.
  4. It destroys crops. This leads to economic loss to the farming communities.

Preventing reoccurrence

In order to prevent the possible reoccurrence of the hazardous effects of these chemicals, the following measures should be taken:

  1. Cleaning the contaminated water bodies and lands
  2. Constructing proper storage facilities that can not allow the pilferage of these chemicals to the environment. These must be specially built to meet the international standards. This will really prevent the dangers of dust and other polluting agents (David, M., 2006).
  3. Stopping mining in areas where the pilferage of uranium poisons are seen.

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