Human capital is a highly significant resource in any organization. Therefore, it is important for organizations to train their employees adequately while providing proper performance management. Most modern organizations have a clear blueprint for the recruitment and selection of their prospective employees. Employee orientation is one of the most basic training programs found in organizations. Some issues may arise in this important aspect of organizations causing them to fail.

This paper shows some of the key factors that should be considered in the decision on an appropriate training program. This paper shows some of the key factors that should be considered in the decision on an appropriate training program. It also shows some of the important aspects of employee training programs such as training needs, cost, and time available. The training program to be utilized for an organization also has to consider organizational culture. The level of employees in the training program is also considered in the decision on the appropriate training program.

The paper also shows some of the methods of employee training, their implementation, assessment, and evaluation. The training methods involved in this section include on-the-job training methods such as coaching and instruction. It also highlights some off-the-job methods such as case studies, distance learning, and lectures. The paper highlights the application of these methods in different situations.

Human Resources Training Programs

Most modern organizations have a clear blueprint for the recruitment and selection of their prospective employees. The goal of every organization is to have the employees that are well-equipped to handle everyday challenges of the job. Therefore, they offer employee training and development to improve their performance. For the success of this important function of the human resources department, the problems have to be properly defined and identified. Training and development programs are utilized for the performance improvement, thus, it is logical to use performance management techniques together with the training. The integration of performance management techniques to the employee development strategies enables organizations to produce effective employees. Such employees are responsive to the changing needs of the organization.

Training and development of employees is aimed at imparting additional skills and abilities on the employees. Training is the teaching of technical and operations employees on more efficient ways of performing their current jobs. Another aspect of employee development is the management development, which imparts skills in managers and professionals to undertake increased responsibilities. This means that there are differences in the focus of these objectives and their purposes. The outcomes of these objectives are different based on the people involved and the purpose of teaching. The training and the development of employees is dependent on the amount of commitment made by the companies in training their employees and developing managerial skills (Pride, Hughes, & Kapoor, 2010).

The training needs of different employees vary ranging from the need for technical skills, organizational procedures, customer service, product information, or business ethics. The high cost associated with employee training creates the need for the proper identification to ensure the optimization (Pride, Hughes, & Kapoor, 2010). Different approaches are used for the achievement of employee training and development goals. Some of the approaches are appropriate for the application in certain organizations or purposes compared to others. Some of the common employee training methods include coaching, where the trainees learn by working under the supervision of experienced employees. Another training approach is simulation, which requires the simulation of work situations in separate areas to allow learning in an appropriate environment (Pride, Hughes, & Kapoor, 2010).

Lectures and classroom teaching, conferences, and seminars allow trainees to listen to qualified professionals in their specialization areas. These approaches also allow the trainees and educators to discuss issues and exchange their ideas. Role-playing in the employment training is essential in the development of efficient employees because they act out the roles of others in the organization.

The high cost associated with employee training is compounded by the fact that employees work at a reduced pace and load. The efforts utilized by organizations in training have to be evaluated periodically to ensure cost effectiveness. Objectives of the training have to be set before the training commences and should be verifiable. The objective has to show the measurements to be used and expectations for the training program. Training evaluation results should be communicated to all involved parties for decision making among top management (Snell & Bohlander, 2011). It can also serve as a motivational factor for trainees, which impacts job completion and performance.

Type of Training Program to Be Selected

The decision on the type of training program that best addresses the needs of the organization is based on the skills required in the employees. The formulation of a training program has to consider what the employees would like to learn in order to ensure their willingness to participate, as well as what they have to know in order to succeed in their job. The training program should have achievable objectives that address deficiency in knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Organizational culture in terms of underperformance should be addressed using the training program as the main objective. For an employee-training program to be successful, it has to be in line with the organization's mission and vision. The values of the organization should also be considered in the formulation of a training program. It should be consistent with the values to ensure that it influences the organizational culture and that it is influenced in the right direction by the training. The training has to be warranted and should address real needs of the organization and employees. The level of staff to be involved in the training program is another factor that is necessary in determining the type of training program to be used (Carsen, 2002).

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Some training programs are effective in training top management, such as seminars and conferences. Others, such as the apprenticeship, are more effective for low to mid level employees. The skill level of the employees should also be considered in the development of a training program. Highly skilled employees require specialized training that may have to come from outside the firm. Employees at the entry level require skills that can be impart by other employees in the organization. This means training programs for highly skilled employees will differ significantly from those involving entry-level employees. The training program to be used also has to consider the organizational culture. A training program implemented in an organization must reflect the organization's values as well as its culture. It should be responsive, flexible, and organized. A training program must be systematic and based on the learning theory employed in the organization. This is essential in ensuring that it is consistent with other principles applied in the organization. Time available for the training is also a significant factor in determining the training program to be applied in an organization. The training program must fit into the time allowed for the training without affecting the productivity of employees significantly.

Methods of Employee Training

Some of the methods used for employee training include on-the-job training, such as the instruction or coaching, and off-the-job training methods, such as distance learning or sandwich courses. Another significant form of employee training is the use of conferences and case studies.

On-the-job training methods, such as coaching and instruction, involve training employees while they are still working. The employee or group is allocated an experienced employee or trainer to work with them. They learn from observing the trainer and engaging him or her with questions. The instructor shows the trainee how to perform the job well. This method would address the training needs of entry-level employees or those with a low level of technical skills. They are meant to learn technical skills from the experienced trainer. Coaching, on the other hand, requires the trainee and the trainer to have a close relationship (Al-Ajlouni, Athamneh, & Jaradat, 2010). The method of assessment for instruction and coaching involves measuring the work performance of the employees in terms of the number of units produced and the occurrence of defects in them. Work sample assessment techniques are most appropriate for on-the-job training. The training method should be assessed in line with the prior performance of the employee and the success of other training methods.

Case studies are also important training methods for high-level employees, such as managers. This method attends to the training needs of managers and executives that are involved in decision-making. It aids in the development of critical thinking and analytical skills that are both complex and time consuming. Leaning, in this case, is through the interaction, and in most cases, it utilizes outside consultants as trainers (Snell & Bohlander, 2011). The assessment for this method can be conducted through group assignments judged by the trainer or individual case studies, which enable the trainer to determine the analytical thinking and decision-making skills of the trainee. The implementation strategies for case studies are through periodic training workshops that take several days allowing the employees and trainers to interact adequately.

Distance learning is a popular method of offering continuous training for employees. Distance learning allows employees to undertake professional courses on a part time basis in order to improve their skill set. The assessment of this training method is through the assessment of examination results and observation of the ability of the employee to take up increased or complex roles in the work place. The implementation of this training program is dependent on the flexibility of the employee and ability to study beyond normal working hours. It is also dependent on the congruence of the skills imparted by the course and the skills required by the employee.

Lectures and conferences are suitable for employees from different levels of the organization. This training technique can be utilized for addressing behavioral change needs in an organization. Lectures and conferences are conducted off the job, and they address the need for behavioral and non-complicated training. This method addresses the training needs by having experienced people discuss the pertinent issues with the employees. This method can be assessed through a number of self-assessment questions for the employees. The trainer can also ask questions top the employees to gauge their understanding of the training’s subject. The evaluation of this method involves observation of the change in behavior among the employees in line with the training (Al-Ajlouni, Athamneh, & Jaradat, 2010). The human resources department can also use data on the reporting of issues like sexual harassment to gauge the impact of a conference focusing on the issue.

In conclusion, employee motivation is a necessary factor in job performance. Continuous learning is also required to ensure the competitiveness of employees in their jobs. Many training techniques, such as the coaching and instruction techniques, require the trainer and the trainee to develop a relationship to allow the correction of errors by the trainer and to improve the performance of the trainee. Others, such as conferences, can be conducted on a large group of people who are assessed after the training through questions. Different methods of training require varied evaluation methods and periods to complete. Despite the training method used, the evaluation is necessary as it is a way of establishing whether the objectives have been met. This also works as an appraisal system, which can motivate employees and allow the improvement of the training program.

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